What is a Link Language?
CE 733 1492)
> Code Switching and Code Mixing
Reconstruction as a productive hypothesis
Also: Work with the earliest language stages
Greenberg (and Ruhlen):
stronger affinity, both in the roots
the Gothick ., though blended with a
How do w
Language and Dialect
What's the difference between
dialect and language?
From Hebrew ( ibblet, ear of wheat), with
reference to Judges 12:5-6: Gilead then cut Ephraim off
from the fords of the Jordan, and whenever Ephraimite
What is convergence?
1. Extended bi- or multilingualism
2. Built-up of interlanguages
What is convergence?
3. Backflow: The returnees syndrome
5. Selection of variants that make switching easier
Similarities not only in terms
Borrowings in English
ceas 'cheese (L. caseum)
butere 'butter (L < Gr. butyros)
straet 'street (L. [via] strata
'straight way' or stone-paved road)
Early Modern English Period
agile, abdomen, anatomy, area,
1. Relatively sytematic analogy
a. Four-part analogy (a type of proportional analogy)
In the Beginning Was Orality
The Vedic (Sanskrit) tradition
y+y= de+vmf+icfw_vj=m` >
hota=rM rcfw_n+Dat=mm` > 1 >
agnm 8ile purhita3m
yajsya devm rtvjam |
ht7ara3m ratnadh&atamam | 1 |
'I invoke Agni, the foremost, God of the s
Instructor/TA: Adriana Molina-Muoz
Coordinator: Hans Henrich Hock
Adriana Molina Muoz
Office: 4108 FLB
Hours: MON 1:00 -2:30 p.m.
or by appt.
E-mails: [email protected][email protected]
Hans Henrich Ho
The discovery of
Some important background information
11th-14th centuries AD: Conquest of much of southwestern Asia by the Seljuqs, a
a. Interruption of the trade routes betwe
History of writing
1. Importance of Writing for Historical Linguistics
a) Preservation of texts/language of earlier periods.
b) Difficulties: Interpreting/deciphering new(ly discovered) scripts. E.g. decipherment of
cuneiform script by 19th Cen
Etymology is a science in which consonants count for little,
and vowels, for nothing at all.
(Statement attributed to Voltaire, probably apocryphal.)
Sound change, in so far as it takes place mechanically, takes place
according to laws that a
The most volatile aspect of linguistic change. With
enough time or ingenuity, any change is possible.
nice originally ignorant, stupid
bad, sick African American slang good
Engl. bow-wow, ding-dong
Linguistic sexism and pejoration
Im off to have a piss = excuse me for a moment
snail-mail = postal mail
= used car
and Other Objects of Wonder
A reduced language that results from extended contact
between groups of people with no language in common; it
evolves when they need some