Short-Term (Working) Memory
Q.130. What is short term memory? What is sensory memory?
First stage of memory
Storing an exact copy of incoming information until can be processed
Very brief - few seconds or less
Our Lord, do not impose blame upon us if we have forgotten or erred. al-Baqarah (2):286
The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said, I am only human. I forget as you
forget, and if I forget then remind me. at-Tirmidhi
This applied only to worldly m
Easiest to remember last items in a list because they are still in STM Recognition Memory:
Previously learned material is correctly identified
Usually superior to recall
Example: Multiple choice questions
Q.133. What is forgetting? What are the theories o
The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said, There are three types of dreams: a
righteous dream which is glad tidings from
Allah; the dream which causes sadness which is from Satan; and a dream from the ramblings
of the mind. (Muslim, al-Bukhari)
typical person 1 to 2 hours of dreaming every night
if deprived of REM
if deprived of REM sleep one night will have increased
REM sleep next night
The Sleep Cycle
Normal sleep required by individual is 7.5 hours per night
Q.120. What are the stages of sleep?
Stages of sleep5 stages of sleep
involves passing from waking state into a semi-wakeful state, then into stages of
progressively deeper sleep
followed by REM sleep
based on EEG measures of brainwave activity during sl
Yunus (10):1 Quran is a book full of wisdom
Wisdom qualities of purpose, discrimination, and precision
Q.116. What do you know about the wisdom of the prophet p.b.u.h.?
It is He who has sent among the unlettered a Messenger from themselves reciting to th
Majority of religion has logic
Q.112. What is status of knowledge in Islam?
Knowledge important in relation to thought and belief
Humans could not utilize their intellect to make sound decisions without knowledge.
Come to know specifics of right and wron
IQ above 130 is considered in gifted zone
Performs well in school
Special programs are available in some schools
Q.108. Differentiate between intelligence and wisdom.
Intelligence: ability to think logically, to conceptualize and abstract fro
Specific factors (s)
Seven clusters of primary mental abilitiesWord fluencyVerbal comprehensionSpatial
Q.100. What are the contemporary theories of intelligence?
Validityextent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed topredict what it
is supposed to predict
Q.104. write about the dynamics of intelligence?
Nature versus nurture question:
Is Intelligence something that we inherit from our parents
Process of observing and imitating behavior
Also noting consequences of a persons actions
Model: Someone who serves as an example
Q.97. What do you mean by spiritual modeling. Give an example.
Humans may grow spiritually by imitating the life
Modeling or Observational Learning
Q.89. Explain Classical Conditioning in detail with all its relevant principles.
Learning through Association
Previously neutral stimulus becomes associated with another stimulus through repeated
pairing with that sti
Child receives a sticker for handing in his assignment Negative Reinforcement
When a behavior is followed by the removal of an unpleasant event
Behavior ends discomfort(e.g., the bells in Fannies car stop when she puts the seatbelt
Q.92. What are the
Q.79. Write the details of Maslows theory of Hierarchy of Needs.
Q.80. What are emotions? What are the internal and external components of emotions?
Test from AllahAs emotions are natural, it is not expected that we eliminate them
volume of sound
level of income
Q.83. What is Relative Deprivation principle of emotions?
Relative Deprivation Principle
If compare ourselves to those who are better off
creates envy and discontentment
If compare ourselves to those who are worse off he
Q.86. What is concept of learning in Islamic Perspective?
Humans born without any knowledge (other than fitrah)
Allah provides senses and intellect in order that may learn from the world around them
In order to be grateful to Allah for His bounties
Common word is boredom!
Nothing to doDo not like to be over-stimulatedIf goes too high, try to reduce itToo
many people or soundsToo much homeworkToo much stress
Q.77. What is moderation in fulfillment of needs and drives?
fulfilment of both physiologica
Q.73. What is affiliation motives?
Need/drive to be in contact with others Need to belong and form social attachments
Need for social acceptance Basic human need
Q.74. What are Achievement motives?
Need for success and accomplishment
Mastery of some a
All other motivations should be connected to this one in some way
Q.70. what are physiological motives?
Sleep and rest
Need: Internal deficiency; causes drive
Drive: Energized motivational state (e.g., hu
Openness to Experience
Q.67. Define Motivation.
Factors that activate behavior and make us do what we do
Factors that give behavior direction (either positive or negative)
Dynamics of behavior that initiate, sustai
Islamic improve self for sake of
Allah and to obtain His Pleasure Personality of the Disbelievers
Q.61. What are the features of the personality of Hypocrites and Disbelievers?
Personality of the Disbelievers
More likely to have negative personality cha
Imitate modeling from parents and others
Conditioning (reinforcement and punishment)
What we think about situations affects our behavior
d. trait theory?
Define personality in terms of stable and enduring behavior patterns
So while certain virtuous characteristics will follow the model of the Prophet (peace and
blessings be upon him), others will be unique
"And indeed, you (O Muhammad) are of a great moral character." al-Qalam (68):4
The Prophet said, "Indeed, I was sent t
genetic codes that guide development of the brainelements apparent from birth
character influences persons reactions to and interactions with the environment
Q.54.Examine the relation between personality and nature.
Humans born with unique temperament w
Once heart breaks it connection with Allah, it becomes more difficult to return backjust
as it is difficult to remove rust from a physical object
Inability to perceive the truth
Heart in constant state of worry and anxiety
Sense of isolation from Alla
Q.47.What is a dead heart? What are its signs? What is a sick heart?
Dead Heart Ignorant of its CreatorNot know its Lord nor worship Him Follows its whims
and desires Immersed in worldly pleasures Dreary and harsh heart When hears mention
of Allah or Qura
An-nafs al-mutmainnah; The tranquil soul
Q.41. What are the weaknesses of the Soul?
Negative attributes Desire to commit certain types of sins Greed, envy, arrogance,
lazinessDesires for wealth, power, prestige, authorityCan be
Q.44.What is the nature of Heart? What is its place among all organs of the body?
Named qalb due to fact that it chances quickly and often
Changing of heart related to its level of eeman (faith)
Heart has capacity to reason and understand
Q.38. What is free will and accountability in Islamic Perspective?
Humans have free will to make choices in regard to beliefs and deeds
And say: The truth is from your Lord, so whosoever wills - let him believe; and whosoever
wills - let him disbelieve.a