Five Issues / Problems for Dualism
1. Interaction (criterion of conservatism): How can immaterial substance casually interact with material substance?
How can a spirit influence the brain (or anything material)? Would seem to violate conservation laws in
There seems to be a (mysterious) gap between conscious experience and brain events.
Three versions of substance dualism:
Interactionalist Dualism, Epiphenomenalism, Psychophysic Parallelism
HOW SHOULD WE ASSESS THE CHOICE BETWEEN DUALISM AND MATERIALISM?
Six common Criteria of Adequacy For comparing Hypotheses
The first three criteria pertain to prior probability
Conservatism: The degree to which a hypothesis fits in with the background information. Why dinosaurs extinct? (H1)
meteor impact, (H2) haunted
The next three criteria pertain to Explanatory Power:
Scope: The number/variety of facts that a hypothesis explains, i.e., makes likely.
The CSI who can explain 28/30 items of evidence from the crime scene has a better theory (other things equal) than the
Claims that NOT ALL mental states can be reduced to some physical brain state (as claimed by the Identity Theory). SOME
psychological terms and alleged mental phenomena will be ELIMINATED, i.e., rejected, as mere folk psychology
Unit 3: Philosophy of MIND
What is consciousness?
The problem of dualism
Philosophy of Mind: What is Consciousness?
Who/What am I? Issues of Self-Identity begin with the fact of our own consciousness.
1. THE MIND-BODY PROBLEM: I have a mind and a body (br
B: IDENTITY THEORY
Claims that the mind = the brain, or:
Mental event/state/process = brain event/state/process
The identity is not LOGICAL (e.g., kings are identical with male monarchs)
But, rather, EMPIRICAL (e.g., Water is identical to H2O)