Photosynthesis is a metabolic pathway.
Carbon dioxide and along with water is
used to produce carbohydrates. Oxygen
is released as a waste gas.
Light energy is transferred to chemical energy
Hormones and Homeostasis
Hormones are used when signals need to be widely
Thyroxine is a hormone produced by the thyroid gland
Its key role is in controlling the metabolism of cells
It affects almost every physiological process in the body inc
Jet lag is caused by flying in an airplane and crossing one or more time zones,
which can disrupt the body's sleep and wake cycle (circadian rhythms). Jet travel
across time zones may make it difficult for you to fall asleep, stay asleep,
Describes the production of female gametes (ova) within the ovary
The process begins during foetal development, when a large
number of cells (oogonia) are formed by mitosis before
undergoing a period of growth
These cells begin meio
Transport of Respiratory
Is the concentration of gasses.
The greater of the concentration of dissolved oxygen in cells the higher the partial
O2 Dissociation curves of adult and fetal hemoglobin ad myoglo
Nutrients that cannot be synthesised by the body and
must be ingested by diet
Carbohydrates are not considered essential nutrients
because in certain human diets energy is obtained
from other sources without ill effect
Events of the cardiac cycle
The figure shows pressure and volume changes in
the left atrium left ventricle and aorta during two
cycles. It also shows electrical signals emitted by the
heart and recorded by the ECG [ electrocardiogram]
Hormones and Metabolism
Steroids and peptide hormones
Hormones are chemical messengers, secreted by endocrine glands directly in the
bloodstream. The blood carries to them to target cells, where they elicit a
response. A wide range of chemical substances
7.2 Transcription & Gene
Essential Idea: Information stored as a
code in DNA is copied onto mRNA.
Image from https:/worldwide.promega.com/resources/productguides-and-selectors/protocols-and-applications-guide/epigenetics/
By Darren Aherne
Functions of the liver
The liver is composed of hepatocytes that carry out many important functions:
breakdown of erythrocytes
Conversion of cholesterol to bile salts
Production of plasma proteins
Nutrient storage and regulation.
Digestion and Absorption
Secretion of digestive juices
2 Types of glands:
secrete through a duct onto the surface of the body or into the lumen of the gut. (E.g. Digestive
Ductless and secrete hormones into the blood.
Define cell respiration
cell respiration is the controlled release of
energy by oxidation, of organic compounds
(carbohydrates fats and proteins) in cells to
functions of mitochondrial organelles
Matrix : contains enzymes and sol
Kidneys/ Excretion and
Is the cinc. i solutes in a solution m moles.
Organism can be:
Osmoregulators: Organisms with a constant (within a range) osmolarity in tissue
fluid. Osmoregulation (homeostasis).
Transport in the Xylem of
One of the key structural features of the xylem is the rings of lignin
The lignified walls of xylem help them to withstand the very low pressure inside
the xylem which drives the transpiration pull.
Movement and Muscles
Structure of Skeletal Muscle
Attached to bone and causes movement in animal bodies.
Consists of large multinucleated cells (muscle fibers)
Inside Muscle fibers are cylindrical structures called myofibrils
Around these are specialized
Flowering Plant- Life Cycle
plant Life Cycle
Why do some plants flower in winter/fall while others flower during summer/spring?
Period of dark
Prince me to transport organic compounds such as sugars and amino acids from one part of the plant
There are several cell types in phloem tissue.
The movement of organic compounds takes place in phloem sieve t
linked together by condensation reaction to form
disaccharides & polysaccharide polymers
glucose has the formula C6 H12 O6
it forms a hexagonal ring (hexose)
glucose is a form of sugar that fuels resperation
DNA Structure &
Essential Idea: The structure of DNA
is ideally suited to its function.
DNA is a double helix, consisting of two anti-parallel chains of polynucleotides
that are held together by hydrogen bonds between complementary bases on
Transcription & Gene Expression
Information stored as a code in DNA is copied into mRNA.
Only some DNA sequences code for polypeptides.
Non-coding regions have other functions:
rRNA production (ribosomal RNA)
Control gene expre
energy changes in
During chemical reactions, reactants are converted into products. Before a
molecule of the reactant can take part in the reaction it has to gain some
energy. This is called the activation energy of the react
Essential Idea: Information transferred
from DNA to mRNA is translated into an
amino acid sequence.
Proteins + ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
Large subunit & small subunit
3 binding sites for tRNA (peptidyl- P
site, aminoacyl- A site
Male and Female Reproductive Systems.
Hormones in The Menstrual Cycle
FSH stimulates growth of several follicles
Dominant follicle secretes estrogen
Estrogen inhibits growth of other follicles (and FSH)
Chapter 4.1 & 4.2
Populations and species
Group of organisms ,similar characteristic , potentially interbreed to
produce fertile offspring.
Group of organisms, same species,live in the same area at the same
May be repr
The Human Digestive System
Structure of The Small Intestine
The micrograph below shows part of the wall of the small intestine. The
diagram below it allows the tissues in the micrograph to be identified.
Digestion in the small intestine
Defence Against Infectious
A disease-causing micro-organism, virus or prion
Antibiotics are substances or compounds that kill or inhibit the growth of
bacteria by targeting the metabolic pathways of prokaryotes
Neurons & synapses
Organisation of the nervous system.
Structure of motor neurons (diagram)
Structure of motor neurons
A neuron a cell body with extensions leading off to it.
Many dendrons and dendrites provide a large surface area to connect
Ventilation, Gas Exchange and Cell Respiration
Respiration is the transport of oxygen to cells where energy production takes
place, and involves three key processes:
Ventilation: The exchange of air between the lungs and the atmosphere; it i
Harvey & The Circulation of Blood
The Doctrines of Galen about blood was the theory that was accepted
by doctors until the 17th century.
He taught that blood is produced by the liver and pumped by the
heart and consumed
Energy and cells
All living cells need a continual supply of energy. this energy is
used for a wide range of processes including active transport
and protein synthesis. most of these processes require energy in
the form of ATP cfw_adenosi