According to Biyani (2010) Just in Time (JIT) production is a manufacturing philosophy which
eliminates waste associated with time, labor, and storage space. A basic of this concept lies in the
fact that the company produces only what is needed, when it i
(a) What are some of the costs of poor quality?
Some of direct costs associated with the cost of poor quality (COPQ) classified into four
categories which are:
1. Internal failure costs: which are incurred and discovered before the customers receive the