this is the most common cause of acute abdominal pain usually due to blockade of the appendix by
lymphoid hyperplasia or fecalith in adults. Patient presents with periumblical pain, fever, and nausea.
The pain usuall
1. Tracheo-esophageal fistula.
This is a congenital connection between the esophagus and the traachea. The most common
type involves the proximal esophagus ending in a blind loop, with the distal esophagus anastamosing
with the trache
The liver is a bud off of the primitive fore gut. Thus is supplied by the celiac arteries. The right lobe is
about 75 %. It has a big fulsiform ligament running between the right and left lobes. It has the
ligamentum teres, travels with t
ALCOHOLIC LIVER DISEASE
The main risk factors for alcoholic liver disease are;
1. Quantity and duration of alcohol use (usually for more than 8 years),
2. Genetic and metabolic traits,
Quantity of alcohol:
Among susceptible people, a l
Here there is defective relaxation and peristalsis of the rectum and sigmoid colon. This is due to the
congenital failure of the ganglion cells to descend. It is associated with Down syndrome. There will be
GALLBLADDER AND BILIARY TRACT
I. BILIARY ATRESIA.
A. Failure to form or early destruction of extra hepatic biliary tree
B. Leads to biliary obstruction within the first 3 months of life
C. Presents with neonatal jaundice due to conjugated bilirubin, and p
Cirrhosis is a late stage of hepatic fibrosis that has resulted in widespread
distortion of normal hepatic architecture. Cirrhosis is characterized by
regenerative nodules surrounded by dense fibrotic tissue. Symptoms may not
develop for years a
1. Pyloric stenosis.
This is a congenital anomaly in which there is hypertrophy of the circular muscle at the pyloric
sphincter, leading to gastric outflow obstruction which presents clinically with projectile nonbilious vomiting. There
1. Cleft lip and palate:
This is due to the failure of fusion of facial prominences. Cleft lip and cleft palate usually occur
2. Fordycess granules:
These are symmetric, small, light yellow macular spots on the lips and mouth
Inflammatory Bowel diseases
this is chronic, relapsing bowel inflammation possibly due to an immune response to enteric flora.
Normally presents in young women, who present with recurrent bouts of bloody diarrhea, and
abdominal pain. It is a diagnosis of