What Is development?
Principles of Development
The Human Brain and Cognitive Development
Piagets Theory of Intellectual Development
The Drive for Equilibrium
Organization and Adaptation: The Development of Schemes
Factors Influencing Development
After you have completed your study of this chapter, you should be able to
1. Describe the factors influencing personal development, and explain how differences
in parenting and peer interactions can influence this development.
Schools respond to differences in ability by grouping students. Within- and
between-class ability grouping is common in elementary schools; tracking is
prevalent in middle and secondary schools.
Learning styles are students' personal approaches to learni
At the preconventional level, people make egocentric moral decisions; at the
conventional level, moral reasoning focuses on the consequences for others;
and at the postconventional level, moral reasoning is based on principle.
The experience of the unple
Long-term memory is our permanent information store. Information in it is
organized in the form of schemas that include both declarative and procedural
2. Describe the cognitive processes in our information processing system, and identify
Cognitive Perspectives on Learning
Principles of Cognitive Learning Theory
A Definition of Learning
Memory Stores in Our Information Processing System
Cognitive Processes in Our Information Proces
1. Use social cognitive theory concepts, such as the nonoccurrence of expected
consequences, reciprocal causation, and vicarious learning, to explain examples of
2. Identify examples of social cognitive theory concepts, such as types o
1. Identify characteristics of learners who are gifted and talented, and describe methods
for identifying and teaching these students.
Students who are gifted and talented display unique abilities in specific
domains. Recent trends in identification deemp
Students with Learning Problems
The Labeling Controversy
Assessment and Learning: Assessm
Maturation and the quality of experiences in the physical and social world
combine to influence development. As children develop, they progress
through stages that describe general patterns of thinking. Progress through
the stages represents qualitative