Oncogenes and tumo
ur suppressor genes
cell division process is dependent on a tightl
y controlled sequence of events.
dependent on the proper levels of transcripti
on and translation of certain genes.
When this process does not occur prop
Cell cycle and Mitosis
Presented by : Fatma Mostafa
Under Supervision : Prof / Awatef Ali
Cell-Cycle Control System .
The Cell-Cycle Control System Depends on Cyclically Ac
tivated Protein Kinases called Cdks.
Acute Cell Swelling
Acute cell swelling is expansion of cell volume due to loss of control of water
intake. It is a fundamental expression of acute injury, and is to the dying cell what
electrolyte imbalance is to the dying animal, a basic killing mechani
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic and progressive disease, which causes serious
microvascular and macrovascular complications. DM is one of the leading causes
of cardiovascular mortality, blindness, end-stage renal disease and non-trau
TUMOR SUPPRESSOR GENES
Tumor suppressor genes encode proteins that regulate normal cell proliferation.
The products of these genes therefore act like brakes on cell division, and
mutations in theses genes are manifested by deregulation of the cell cycle c
Ageing (British English) or aging (American English) is the process of becoming
older. In the narrow sense, the term refers to biological ageing of human beings,
animals and other organisms. In the broader sense, ageing can refer to single cells
Alzheimer's disease (AD), accounts for 60% to 70% of cases of dementia.It is a
chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and gets worse over
time.The most common early symptom is difficulty in remembering recent even
replacement of normal by abnormal tissues; malposition of normal cells. such as
Development of cytologic and histologic elements that are not normal for the
organ , as the growth of bone in a site where there is normally fibrous connective
Where a cell arises, there must be a previous cell, just as animals can only arise
from animals and plants from plants. A cell reproduces by carrying out an orderly
sequence of events in which it duplicates its contents and then divides in two.
Cell cycle and Mitosis
The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle Usually Includes Four Phases.
The Mitotic Spindle Starts to Assemble in Prophase.
Chromosomes Attach to the Mitotic Spindle at Prometap
Chromosomes Line Up at the Spindl
Nuclear export and import
Large and Small Molecules Enter and Leave the Nucleus
via Nuclear Pore Complexes.
Importins Transport Proteins .
Exportins Transport Proteins.
Most mRNPs Are Exported from t
Nuclear import and export
The nucleus is separated from the cytoplasm by two membranes, which form the
nuclear envelope . Like the plasma membrane surrounding cells, each nuclear
membrane consists of a water-impermeable phospholipid bilayer and various