calorie (with small c) is quantity of energy required to
raise temperature of 1.00 g of pure liquid water by 1.00
calorie is small quantity of heat, (kilocalorie = 1000
calories) is used instead (abbreviated kcal).
Matter and Measurement
Processed foods often contain many additives.
For example, iron is added to some
foods, including breakfast cereal.
Physical properties can be observed & measured without
composition of su
PROPERTIES OF ATOMS & IONIC BONDS
An electron orbital has no sharp boundary beyond which
electron never strays. How then can we define size or radius
of an atom?
For atoms that form simple diatomic molecules, such as Cl 2,
Intermolecular Forces, Liquids, and Solids
Ice cubes float in liquid water. This property of water is
shared by very few other substances in universe.
Photos show sealed glass jar filled with
water. When frozen, water expanded &
The Covalent Bond
Bonding and Molecular Structure:
Structure is the way atoms are arranged within
molecules & polyatomic ions.
Bonding defines the forces that hold adjacent atoms
in a molecule together.
Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Model
3D Molecular Structure
Exceptions to the Octet Rule
Carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, & fluorine
compounds share in four electron pairs.
Boron forms compounds in which it shares three electr
Introduction to atomic theory
Atoms & Elements
jar, one could
To know how many jelly beans are in
dump them out & count them, one by
If all beans had same mass, and
mass & total mass of beans in
calculate number of beans.
Balancing Chemical Equations
Many chemical equations can be balanced by trial and
Reactions of metals or nonmetals with oxygen to give
oxides of general formula of MxOy are common.
e.g. 1, magnesium gives magnesium oxide,
2 Mg(s) +O2(s
The electronic structures of atoms
Different colors of salt flames
Related to electronic configuration
The Uncertainty Principle
Heisenberg concluded that it was impossible to determine
the position and energy of an electron in an atom with good
Compounds: pure substances that can be decomposed
into two or more different pure substances.
e.g. Sucrose reacts sulfuric decomposes and decomposes
to black carbon, an element, & colorless water, a
1 molecule of C12H22O11 12
Solutions and Their Behavior
A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more
substances in single phase. The component present in
largest amount is solvent and other components are
Most of solutions involve water as solven