CHAPTER 15: SENTENCING AND PUNISHMENT
Deterrence is based upon the concept that criminal sanctions communicate to the
public that they should not commit crimes because they could be punished. Fear of
punishment is viewed as a primary deterrent to crime. S
CHAPTER 10: THEFT AND OTHER CRIMES INVOLVING
Common law larceny the trespassory taking and carrying away of the personal
property of another with the intent to deprive the other of the property
CHAPTER 9: ROBBERY, EXTORTION, AND BRIBERY
Robbery is the theft of property from the person or immediate presence of another by
use of force or fear.
The crime of robbery has three distinct elements:
Theft of property
CHAPTER 6: HOMICIDE
Murder is the purposeful, knowing, or reckless unlawful killing of another human being.
The crime of murder has two distinct elements:
1. The defendant must have acted with the necessary-express or implied-speci
CHAPTER 7: SEX OFFENSES
Rape is the unlawful act of sexual intercourse with another person against that person's
will by force, fear or trick.
The crime of rape has two elements:
unlawful sexual intercourse
committed by use of
CHAPTER 3: BASIC REQUIREMENTS OF A CRIMINAL ACT
There are two requisites of each crime; the required act or failure to act [actus
reus] and the required mental state [mens rea].
The term actus reus literally means "guilty act." The justification of requir
CHAPTER 5: DEFENSES
Except for strict liability crimes, all crimes contain an actus reus and a mens
rea. The term defense is used to indicate those matters that if successfully presented by
the defense will negate the existence of either the actus reus or
CHAPTER 2: LIMITATIONS ON CRIMINAL LIABILITY
To understand criminal law concepts, it is necessary to have a basic understanding
of the limitations on criminal liability. Accordingly, our purpose in this chapter is to
provide the student with a brief overv
CHAPTER 1: SOURCES OF CRIMINAL LAW
The study of criminal law is a study of crimes, moral principles, and common law.
Our system of criminal law should be viewed not as a set of rules for memorization,
but as a cluster of ideas, principles, and values abou
INCHOATE OR ANTICIPATORY CRIMES AND CRIMINAL LIABILITY
Inchoate crimes merge only if directed toward commission of the same crime.
According to Commonwealth v. Welch, 2006 PA Super 339, the sentences may merge
when the conduct is directed towar