Tem peratu re
1-47C The zeroth law of thermodynamics states that two bodies are in thermal equilibrium it' both have
the same temperature reading, even ifthey are not in contact.
[-4813 They are Celsius(“C) and Kelvin (K) in
Systems, Forms of Energy, State, Properties
1-1:“: As an open system since mass is crossing the boundaries ofthe system.
145C As a closed system since no mass is crossing the boundaries oftbe system.
l-lﬁC in electric heaters, electrical en
1-341: The pressure relative to the atmospheric pressure is called the gage pressure, and the pressure
relative to an absolute vacuum is called absolute pressure.
external pressure exerted on the skin decreases with
As a r
BASIC CONCEPTS OF THERMODYNAMICS
Thermodynamics and Energy
l-lC Classical thermodynamics is based on experimental observations whereas statistical thermodynamics
is based on the average behavior of large groups ofpartieles.
l-2C On a downh