Electrical Units of
Measure
Electrical Units of Measure
The standard SI units used for the measurement of voltage, current and resistance are the Volt
[ V ], Ampere [ A ] and Ohms [ ] respectively. Sometimes in electrical or electronic circuits
and system
453.701 Linear Systems, S.M. Tan, The University of Auckland
8-1
Chapter 8 Energy and Power, Random Signals and
Noise
8.1
Energy and Power in Deterministic Signals
Consider a deterministic signal f (t). If we think of f (t) as a voltage, the instantaneous
CORRELATION
There is a close relationship between the salaries of Presbyterian
ministers in Massachusetts and the price of rum in Havana.
D. Huff, How to Lie with Statistics
The correlation coefficient is a statistical measure of the relationship between
Weiss and Seibel Scoliosis 2012, 7(Suppl 1):P20
http:/www.scoliosisjournal.com/content/7/S1/P20
POSTER PRESENTATION
Open Access
Autocorrection how to measure the skills
acquired during physical therapy sessions
HR Weiss*, S Seibel
From 8th International C
Most common types of transmission line which support TEM waves are:a) Parallel-plate transmission line- it consists of two parallel conducting plates separated
by a dielectric slab of a uniform thickness as shown in Fig.1.1. At microwaves
frequencies, th
1) Quarter-wave section.
When the length of the line is an odd multiple of i.e. , , then
and
Thus, equ. [108] becomes
[113]
Hence, a quarter-wave lossless line transforms the load impedance to the input
terminals as its inverse multiplied by the square of
Page Summary.
This "look-see" method of circuit analysis is probably the best of all the circuit analysis methods
with the basic procedure for solving Mesh Current Anaysis equations is as follows:
1. Label all the internal loops with circulating currents.
Transformer Impedance Matching
One very useful application of impedance matching to provide maximum power transfer is in
the output stages of amplifier circuits, where the speakers impedance is matched to the
amplifier output impedance to obtain maximum s
TRANSMISSION-LINE PARAMETERS
The electrical properties of a transmission line at a given frequency are completely
characterized by its four distributed parameters R,L,G and C.
For parallel-plate transmission line, these parameters have been obtained abo
[P = I2 x R]
P (watts) = I2 (amps) x R ()
The Power Triangle
One other point about Power, if the calculated power is positive in value for any formula the
component absorbs the power, but if the calculated power is negative in value the component
produces
WAVE CHARACTERISTICS ON FINITE TRANSMISSION LINE
The general solutions for the time-harmonic one-dimension Helmholtz equaitions are
[91a]
[91b]
where
[92]
As mention above, the reflected component is zero for infinite lines. For a finite the same can
be
LINES WITH RESISTIVE TERMINATION
When a line is terminated in a load impedance, both an incident wave and reflected wave
exist. Equ. [96a] gives the phasors expression for the voltage at any distance from the load
end.
NB: the termrepresents the inciden
Open circuit line
Standing wave is similar to a resistance terminated line with , except that and curves are
magnitudes of sinusoidal functions of the distance from the load. This can be verified by
letting in equ. [136a] and [136b]. i.e. and . Thus,
[14
Short-circuited line
The standing-waves are similar to those on a resistance-terminated line with . Here, , and is
finite. Hence, equ. [136a] and [136b] reduces to
[143a]
[143b]
Typical standing waves for open- and short-circuited lines are shown in Fig.
Nodal Voltage Analysis
Nodal Voltage Analysis
As well as using Mesh Analysis to solve the currents flowing around complex circuits it is also
possible to use Nodal Analysis methods too. Nodal Voltage Analysis complements Mesh
Analysis in that it is equall
294
IJCSNS International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, VOL.9 No.6, June 2009
A Review on Multiplexing Schemes for MIMO Channel Sounding
M. Habib Ullah, A. Unggul Priantoro
International Islamic University Malaysia
estimation [3, 6]. Ac
AMS 5
CORRELATION
Correlation
The correlation gives a measure of the linear association
between two variables. It is a coefficient that does not depend
on the units that are used to measure the data and is bounded
between -1 and 1. In this class we will c
Chapter 1
Transmission Lines and S-Parameters
1.1 Review of Transmission Lines
In our study of microwave circuits, we will be extensively using our knowledge of transmission lines. We
therefore need to review a few concepts from transmission line theory.
REFLECTIONS AND STANDING WAVE RATIO
Page 1 of 5
REFLECTIONS AND STANDING WAVE
RATIO (SWR)
For a moment, let us consider an infinitely long transmission line whose characteristic impedance is Z0.
If we apply RF to the transmission line, current will flow d
Lecture 12
Group Velocity and Phase Velocity
Many modern ideas on wave propagation originated in the famous works of Lord
Raleigh, and the problems we intend to discuss are no exception to this rule. The
distinction between phase velocity and group veloci
VSWR, or Voltage Standing Wave Ratio.
When a transmission line (cable) is terminated by an impedance that does not match the characteristic
impedance of the transmission line, not all of the power is absorbed by the termination. Part of the power
is refle
SYNCHRONOUS
GENERATOR
E N G. C. K I T U R
Introduction
Alternating-current (ac) generators are commonly referred to as
synchronous generators or alternators. A synchronous machine,
whether it is a generator or a motor, operates at synchronous
speed, that
Group velocity
Roger Grimshaw
July 2, 2002
Abstract
A short and largely traditional review of the concept of group velocity, prepared for the forthcoming Encyclopedia of Nonlinear Science
Waves often propagate as a packet, or group, within which there
are
Lecture 16: Group and Phase Velocity
Up to now we have just talked about the speed (or velocity) v of a wave. Actually there are two
velocities: the Group Velocity vg and the Phase Velocity vp . They are given by the memorable formul:
vp =
k
vg =
d
dk
1.
Position Angle Scales for 1.25" Eyepieces
Print this Page on Cardboard: Print this PDF-File on a sheet of cardboard 1:1 without any
page scaling.
Select the Scale for Your Instrument: If you are using an astronomical telescope with an
even number of ref
Lecture 7: Transmission Lines
Outline
1.
2.
3.
4.
Ladder Network Approximation
Inductance
Superconducting Transmission Line
Comparison with normal transmission line
September 25, 2003
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
6.763 2003 Lecture 7
Transmission
Group velocity and phase velocity
Lecture notes (Feb, 2009) : M. S. Santhanam
IISER, Pune / PRL, Ahmedabad.
This notes is meant to be a supplement and not a substitute for standard text books.
1
Phase and group velocity of waves
To understand the differen
Derive the relationship between the group velocity and the
phase velocity v g = v +
c dn
and indicate in what conditions a
n 2 d
light pulse can travel through a medium of index of refraction n
faster than the speed of light in vacuum?
Defintion:
vg =
d
Application
Note
An Introduction to Digital and Vector
Modulation
The transmission of data or digitally encoded speech
has resulted in the adoption of a variety of methods to
transmit the information. This Technical Information
explains basic techniques u
Sampling Theory 101
Oliver Kreylos
[email protected]
Center for Image Processing and Integrated Computing (CIPIC)
Department of Computer Science
University of California, Davis
CIPIC Seminar 11/06/02 p.1
Outline
Things that typically go wrong
Mathema