Annotated Bibliography
Work Diversity in Healthcare
Martin, G. (2014). The Effects of Cultural Diversity In The Workplace. Journal Of Diversity
Management (JDM), 9(2), 89. http:/dx.doi.org/10.19030/jdm.v9i2.8974
This article examines work diversity which
TOPIC 1
1.0 MEDICAL GEOLOGY
1.1 Definition of Medical Geology
Emerging diseases present medical and public health institutions with many challenges.
However, emerging disciplines may offer communities new opportunities to address a wide
range of health pr
(Finite Automaton)
Method 4
Introduction to Finite
Automaton
Consider the following game board that
contains 64 boxes
There are some pieces of paper. Some are of white color
while others are of black color.
The number of pieces of paper are 64 or less.
Mohammad Ali Jinnah University , Karachi
Automata Theory -A
Assignment#2
Issue date: 09-02-2016
Due date: -16-02-2016
1- Build an RE, FA and the transition table that accepts only the language of all
words with b as the second letter.
2- Build an FA that
Regular Expression
Lecture#7
Regular Expression (RE)
As discussed earlier that a* generates , a, aa,
aaa, and a+ generates a, aa, aaa, aaaa, ,
so the language
L1= cfw_, a, aa, aaa, and
L2 = cfw_a, aa, aaa, aaaa,
can simply be expressed by a* and a +,
re
Kleene Star Closure
Lecture#2
Given , then the Kleene Star Closure of the
alphabet , denoted by *, is the collection
of all strings defined over , including .
It is to be noted that Kleene Star Closure
can be defined over any set of strings.
Examples
If
What does automata mean?
It is the plural of automaton, and it
means
something that works automatically.
Introduction to languages
There are two types of languages
Formal Languages (Syntactic languages)
Informal Languages (Semantic languages)
Alphabets:
Regular Languages
Regular Languages
Definition: The language generated by any
regular expression is called a regular
language.
It is to be noted that if r1, r2 are regular
expressions, corresponding to the
languages L1 and L2 then the languages
generated
Mohammad Ali Jinnah University , Karachi
Issue date:26-jan-2016
Automata Theory -A
Assignment#1
Due date:30-jan-2016
Give the regular expressions define over = cfw_a,b,
1. all possible strings
2. all possible strings excluding null string
3. words beginni
Transition Graph
Method 5 (Transition
Graph)
Definition:
A Transition graph (TG), is a collection of the
followings
1. Finite number of states, at least one of which
is start state and some (maybe none) final
states.
2. Finite set of input letters () from
Generalized Transition
Graphs
Generalized Transition
Graphs
Definition:
A generalized transition graph (GTG) is a collection
of three things
Finite number of states, at least one of which is
start state and some (maybe none) final states.
Finite set of
Mohammad Ali Jinnah University , Karachi
Issue date:26-jan-2016
Automata Theory -A
Assignment#1-solution
Due date:30-jan-2016
Give the regular expressions define over = cfw_a,b,
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
all possible strings = (a+b)*
all possible strings excludin
1
Nondeterminism
2
Nondeterminism
TGs and GTGs provide certain relaxations
i.e. there may exist more than one path for
a certain string or there may not be any
path for a certain string, this property
creates Nondeterminism and it can also
help in differ
Non-Deterministic
Finite Automata
Nondeterministic Finite Accepter
(NFA)
Alphabet set =cfw_a
a
q0
q1
a
q2
a
q3
Courtesy Costas Busch - RPI
2
Nondeterministic Finite Accepter
(NFA)
Alphabet set =cfw_a
a
q0
q1
a
q2
No transition
a
q3
No transition
Courtesy
Regular Expressions
Standard Representations
of Regular Languages
Regular Languages
DFAs
NFAs
Courtesy Costas Busch - RPI
Regular
Expressions
2
When we say: We are given
a Regular LanguageL
We mean: LanguageL
is in a standard
representation
(DFA, NFA, or
Pushdown Automata
PDAs
Pushdown Automaton - PDA
Input String
Stack
States
Courtesy Costas Busch - RPI
2
Initial Stack Symbol
stack
head
Stack
Stack
$
z
top
bottom special symbol
Appears at time 0
Courtesy Costas Busch - RPI
3
The States
Pop
symbol
Input
s
Deterministic
Finite Automata
And Regular Languages
Languages Accepted by DFAs
Take DFA
M
Definition:
The language L M contains
all input strings accepted by M
LM = cfw_ strings that drive M
Courtesy Costas Busch - RPI
to a final state
2
Example # 1
LM ab
Context-Free Languages
Context-Free Languages
n n
cfw_a b
R
cfw_ww
Regular Languages
Courtesy Costas Busch - RPI
2
Context-Free Languages
Context-Free
Grammars
Pushdown
Automata
stack
automaton
Courtesy Costas Busch - RPI
3
Context-Free Grammars
Courtes
Pushdown Automata
PDAs
Pushdown Automaton - PDA
Input String
Stack
States
Courtesy Costas Busch - RPI
2
Initial Stack Symbol
stack
head
Stack
Stack
$
z
top
bottom special symbol
Appears at time 0
Courtesy Costas Busch - RPI
3
The States
Pop
symbol
Input
s
Applications
of
The Pumping Lemma
Non-context free languages
n n n
cfw_a b c : n 0
Context-free languages
n n
cfw_a b : n 0
Courtesy Costas Busch - RPI
2
Theorem: The language
n n n
L cfw_a b c : n 0
is not context free
Proof:
Use the Pumping Lemma
for co
Non-regular languages
Pumping Lemma
n n
cfw_a b : n 0
Non-regular languages
R
cfw_vv : v cfw_a, b*
Regular languages
a *b
b*c a
b c ( a b) *
etc.
Courtesy Costas Busch - RPI
2
L
How can we prove that a language
is not regular?
Prove that there is no DFA o
The Pumping Lemma
for
Context-Free Languages
Take an (infinite) context-free language
Generates an infinite number
of different strings
Example:
S AB
A aBb
B Sb
B b
Courtesy Costas Busch - RPI
2
S AB
A aBb
B Sb
B b
In a derivation of a long string,
variab
Equivalence & Minimization
of
Automata
Outline
Equivalence of
a state in a DFA
regular languages
Minimization of DFA
smallest possible DFA for a given
regular language
Courtesy Shahab Baqai - LUMS
2
Equivalent States.
0,1
Example
0
b
1
0
0
a
d
1
1
0,
1
e
Properties of
Regular Languages
For regular languagesL1
we will prove that:
Union:
L2
and
L1 L2
Concatenation: L1L2
Star:
L1 *
Reversal: L1R
Are regular
Languages
Complement: L1
Intersection:
L1 L2
Courtesy Costas Busch - RPI
2
A useful transformation: us
1
DNA identification and analysis
Institution
Course
Professor
Date
2
DNA is a hereditary material that is found in humans and almost all the other organisms in
the earth .Mostly, the DNA is found in the cell nucleus. A small amount of the DNA if found in
Running head: STUDY OF DNA
Name:
Instructor:
Institution:
Date:
Introduction
DNA
2
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is unique to a life of the living organism. It exists in all
organisms including small bacteria as well as human beings. DNA has an impact on ph
1
How to lower blood pressure by changing diet
Name
Institution
Course
Professor
Date
2
High blood pressure is a condition that can lead to life threatening diseases such as stroke,
heart or kidney failure and many other diseases. Keeping the blood pressu
LOCAL FOOD SUPPLY SYSTEMS
NATIONAL FOOD SECURITY AND NUTRITIONAL STRATEGY
INTRODUCTION
The food and nutrition insecurity in Kenya affects about 10 million Kenyans. Food and
nutrition insecurity is closely linked to poverty, about half of the Kenyan popula
MINERALS AND
TRACE ELEMENTS
Minerals
Essential element forms an integral part of
an organic structure performing a vital
function.
Trace element = naturally occurring,
homogeneous,
inorganic
substance
required in humans in amounts less than
100 mg/day.