two major experiments. None of the participants reported any current
musculoskeletal pain or injuries within the past six months. Due to the fact that the
sensomotoric performance tends to be reduced starting in middle age people (i.e., 45
In order to conduct the investigation, an experiment was designed in a controlled CNCEDM
(Computer Numerically Controlled-Electro Discharge Machine) wire cutting
environment, at The National Small Industries Corporation Ltd. (NSIC) Aligarh
The presented approach enables to assist the human user or to change the machine
state depending on the condition of the holistic socio-technical system. Prevention
of and assistance in malpractice has sev
Jaschinski , C., Spiess, M., May, S. (1997): TeleService - Eine Einfhrung,
Forschungszentrum fr Rationalisierung an der RWTH, Aachen, Sonderdruck
Jrgensohn, T. (2002), Bedienermodellierung. In: K.-P. Timpe, T. Jrgensohn & H.
Kolrep (Eds.), Mensch-Ma
33, 133 136.
Westgaard R.H., Aaras A. and Stranden E. (1988), Postural angles as an indicator of
postural load and muscular injury in occupational work situations,
Ergonomics, 31(6), 915-933.
Winer B.J. (1971), Statistical principles
identified, but the interaction between the factors is not much understood. It is
important to recognize personal characteristics and other environmental and sociocultural factors
which usually play a key role in these disorders. Disorder and visual
affects the activity of the neck extensor muscles. Ayako Takata et al., (2002)
determined the effects of the tilt angle of a notebook computer on posture and muscle
activities. It was concluded in the study that at 100 degree tilt angle, the subjects had
The Planning Layer contains the core elements that are responsible for decisionfinding and in the
case of assembly planning in deriving an assembly sequence for a
certain product. It contains the Kernel and the Cognitive Processor as co
columms added for the supply of the snap fasteners. 2, 4 and 6 indicate the three
After analyzing the results of the first experiment, a second experiment was
planned. In the second experiment, 30 male students from the age of 19 to 3
slipperiness slippery non-slippery second
The apparatus was adjusted for two predetermined insertion forces (20N and
70N). This resulted in the combination of four experimental
interacting with machines or computers, e.g. technical systems that control the
users inputs and proof them for correctness and appropriateness in the current
context. This can be found in software applications to avoid false inputs for example
in text fo
But this can be shown only by further evaluation of the specific contexts.
The snap-fit assembly and snap-fit movements are affected by grasp-/contactcharacteristics of
snap fasteners. The insertion times and moving times for different
2 vs (1,3) 15.3228 1 15.3228 143.20 <0.0001
(i) F-valueov = 19.38 and F-valueov = 143.20, were greater than [F0.01 (1, 51)]cv = 7.1595
(obtained from F-table). [Where ov = observed value and cv = critical value]. (ii) Pvalues for
There are research deficits in the product design and industrial engineering
concerning snap-fits. Notably, the effects of snap-fit design on assembly time
requirements were not studied. Boothroyd and Dewhurst (1983) and Poli et al.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Although the force measuring apparatus was adjusted in the first experiment for
equal predetermined insertion forces for both head geometries, the actual measured
insertion forces were higher for sharp-edged snap-fi
eye tracker. The expert can see the view and the gaze position of the novice on his
screen. For supporting the novice, the gaze information of the expert on his monitor
are recorded by a remote eye tracker and transmitted to the novices head-mounted
The drawback of MTM-UAS lies on its high degree of aggregation, which makes
the analyses unsuitable for the evaluation of design decisions (Landau et al., 2009).
Landau et al. (2009) classified the main time-related factors that affect the
handling and as
to another. Snap-fits differ from loose or chemical attachment methods in that it
requires no additional pieces, materials or tools to carry out the attaching function
(Bonenberger, 2005). Innovative manufacturers are adopting them, in order to
In this article we present a theoretical approach leading to a practical framework
that enables the predictive and automatic detection of human errors and malpractice
(e.g. errors of emission or confusion) and their contextual prevention by either
the insertion of sharp-edged snap-fits (comparison of mean insertion time).
As expected, the predetermined insertion force has a significant influence on the
electromyographic activity. It was noted that the sharpness only has a significant
effect on the
the system design. Therefore, its effect on human performance in a CNC-EDM
environment was explored in this study.
Recently public and private organizations have engaged themselves in the enterprise of
managing more and more complex and coup
as a Human- CNC machine interaction environment is concerned.
Keywords: Visual Display, Viewing Angle, System Design, CNC-EDM Environment,
With the high technology applications getting more widespread at the global level,
cognitive architectures that describe fixed mechanisms of cognition across uses and
across tasks (Anderson, 2007) and are typically implemented in a computer
program. Within cognitive architectures cognitive psychology concepts such as
Ritter, E. F. (2009). Two cognitive modeling frontiers. Transactions of the Japanese
Society for Artificial Intelligence, 24(2), 241-249.
Sadasivan, S.; Greenstein, J.S.; Gramopadhye, A.K. & Duchowski, A.T. (2005).
Use of Eye Movements as Feedforward Trai
FIGURE 1 Polylemma of Production Technology
As a prerequisite for self optimizing behavior cognitive capabilities are
essential (Hauck, 2008). Therefore the development of a system enacting cognitive
behavior is one of the objectives in the ICD.
q*Cognitive Technical SystemPresentation LayerPresentationCompiler
g wLegend:g, g* Goalw, w* Actual state of the systemk, k* Knowledgey Sensor datay* Actual
world stateq, q*, q+ Queryu* Next actionu Actor commands
must not take too long, because the state of the Technological Application System
can have changed significantly in the meantime.
The next best action u* derived in the Planning Layer is sent back to the
Coordination Layer, where the abstract description