Levelling & Surveying
NIWA: April 2004 Pacific Island Hydrology Course, Fiji Page 1
3 LEVELLING & SURVEYING
The primary reference at water-level recording stations is a set of stable bench-marks, installed in
locations where their level should
Introduction to Photogrammetry
Autumn Quarter 2005
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Geodetic Science
The Ohio State University
2070 Neil Ave., Columbus, OH 43210
1 Introduction 1
Errors in length measurement due to incorrect chains, numerical problems on distance and area
corrections; Ranging - definition and methods of ranging, procedure for direct and indirect
3.0 Chaining a line In all chaining operations two
Areas of irregularly bounded fields - different methods.
6.0 Measurement of areas of irregularly bounded fields
Various formulae such as Mid-ordinate rule or Average ordinate rule,
Trapezoidal rule and Simpsons rule are applied for computation o
Chain triangulation principle, survey stations, location of survey stations, baseline, check line,
tie line, offsets.
4.0 Chain triangulation and Cross-staff survey 4.1 Measurement of areas One
of the main purpose of surveying is to measure the
Surveying definition and objectives of survey, primary divisions of surveying, geodetic and
plane surveys, classification, uses of surveys.
1. Surveying It is the art of determination of horizontal distances, differences in
Photogrammetry is a measurement technology in which the
coordinates of points on an object are determined. This is
achieved by stereoscopy, which is measurements made in two (or
more) photographic images taken from
Leveling - definition, description of dumpy level and leveling staff. Terminology connected with
leveling - datum, elevation, station, back sight, fore sight, intermediate sight, height of
instrument, bench mark and its types, change point.
Contour survey - definition, characteristics and uses of contours.
12.0 Contouring A contour or contour line is defined as a line of intersection of
level surface with the surface of the ground. Thus, every point on a contour line
has the same