The processes of seed separating, cleaning and sizing are accomplished by utilizing differences in
physical characteristics of the seeds to be separated. If seeds do not differ in some physical
characteristics they cannot be separated.
There is today a wi
1 XX X W 1 XY
W X W W
X X X W X U
2 W X W W W U
1 X X
2 n W X
1 1n in1 X i2
2 n i 1 Wi X i
E ( XW ) 0
X W 1n XU
W W 1n WU
in1 X iWi
in1 Wi 2
1n in1 X i ui
Wi Wi E ( Wi Wi ) WW ,
n i 1
n 1 XW Xi Wi E ( Xi Wi ) XW ,
n i 1
Wi Xi p E (Wi Xi ) WX .
n i 1
XX , WW , XW , and WX
n 1XM W X n 1XX (n 1XW ) (n 1W W
moisture content of the kernel is equal to the equilibrium moisture
content. The relative humidity of the air surrounding cereal grain in
equilibrium with the environment is called the equilibrium relative
humidity. Variation in equilibrium relative humid
slide or tumble. The orbit of round seed increases with speed on its flight around the
axis, until it rolls over the edge of the inner flight into the outer flight where it is
collected separately. The slower moving seed does not build up enough speed to
wrinkled seeds from smooth seeds.
ability to roll
Removal of weed seeds
soybean and peas from wheat, flax
Mass this gives the variation in the tendency for materials to float and is
used in aspiration techniques.
Shape and presence of hairs and awns these give the variation in resistance
Surface irregularities the presence of holes and
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The operations carried out in this plant are:
Grading or sizing.
dressing or treating
After shelling and pre-cleaning, the seed still a lot of impurities that need to be removed. Cleaning
= 963 kg/mJ, = 3.06 10-4 Pa-s, k = 0.678 W/mK,
hfg = 2255 103 J/kg
A square array of 400 tubes will have N = 20. From Eq (5.57),
h 0.725 g 2 k 3h fg / N D Tg Ts
9.81 963 2 0.678 3 2255 103
6.328 kW / m 2 K
20 0.000306 0.015 12
of the heated surface can be maintained at the desired value. In that case, it would be
possible to operate the vapour producing system at the point of maximum flux with nucleate
boiling. If the heat flux instead of the surface temperature, is the indepen
The field run produce after threshing is received in the processing
Seed movement /basic steps in seed processing plant
SEED PROCESSING EQUIPMENT
Processing involves three steps:
Step 1: Pre- conditioning and pre-cleaning
X% 1n in1 (T 1 Tt 1 ( X it X i )2 ),
(T 1 Tt1 ( X it X i ) 2 )
Steps in Seed Processing and Alternate Pathways.
Figure 1: Steps in Seed Processing and alternate pathways
Broadly these activities fall in the following
Have two rubber faced rough surfaces to rub the seeds. Dehulling (removal of outer
coat or husk) and scarifier (scratching the seed coat) can be done simultaneously or
1. High capacity power operated sh
(1) Reduced potential for weather and pest related field losses.
(2) Reduces dependency on weather conditions for harvest.
DISADVANTAGES OF DRYING
The initial cost of installing drying equipment is normally high.
Trained personnel required
Specific gravity separator
Special Cleaning Machines:
The winnower, air screen machine/cleaner, indent separators and specific gravity
table are more or less general cleaning machines. Sometimes a special cleaning
machine is needed for a specific problem.
In cases where the seed has high moisture content at the delivery time, it should be offloaded and
dried as soon as possible to avoid deterioration such as growing of mould etc.
On Cob Seed Maize Intake
WET SEED MAIZE ON COB FROM FARMER
The rate of heat transfer is also related by the relation,
h dx Tg Ts k dx Tg Ts / ; or, h k /
which can be expressed In dimensionless form in terms of Nusselt number,
Nu hx / k
4k Tg Ts
The average value of the heat transfer
temperature of the liquid, and the boiling process will start.
(i) Pool Boiling - Pool boiling occurs only when the temperature of the heated surface
exceeds the saturation temperature of the liquid. The liquid above the hot surface I s quiescent
For further reading on these processes one is referred to detailed manuals such as:
Seed Processing, Storage and Distribution Manual produced by the (Indian) National
Seeds Corporation and the Rockefeller Foundation (n.d)
FAO (1975): Cereal
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