UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI
FME 678
COMPUTATIONAL FLUID MECHANICS
F56/88066/2016
PETER OTIENO ODHIAMBO
13th April, 2017
Introduction
The report was based on solving complex problem that involved the flow of
Literature Review on Glass Material
LITERATURE REVIEW ON GLASS MATERIAL
Name:
Institution:
1
Literature Review on Glass Material
2
Literature review on glass Material
Introduction
Glass, as an importa
n order to measure the flow rate in a 2 m _ 2 m air
conditioning duct, an engineer uses a pitot-static
probe to measure dynamic head. The duct is
divided into nine equal rectangular areas with the
pre
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), PTC 19.21987: Pressure
Measurement,
ASME International, New York, 1987.
2. Brombacher, W. G., D. P. Johnson, and J. L. Cross, Mercury Barometers and
Ma
frequency response. The frequency response can be found directly by
applying a constant amplitude
periodic input signal and varying its frequency. A flush-mounted transducer
places the sensor in
direc
Then,
Mf 5 1
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
1 _ f =f n
2
h i2
2z
However, because point 2 is the stagnation point, U2 0, and
p2
pt
p1
rU2
1=2 9:17
Hence, it follows that p2 > p1 by an amount equal to pv rU21
=2, called the dynamic pressure, an
amount equivalent
Convert the following gauge pressures into absolute pressure relative to one
standard atmosphere:
a. _12.0 psi
b. 200 mm Hg
c. 10.0 kPa
d. 7.62 cm H2O
9.3 A water-filled manometer is used to measure t
Are commonly used for industrial flow monitoring, where a fast dynamic
response is desirable. There
is a natural upper frequency limit on a cylindrical sensor of diameter d that is
brought about by th
A 10cm diameter, square-edged orifice plate is used to meter the
steady flow of 16_C water through
an 20-cm pipe. Flange taps are used and the pressure drop
measured is 50 cm Hg. Determine the pipe
fl
FIND U
SOLUTION Using Equation 9.51,
Ul
2 sin u=2
fD
632:8 _ 10
_9 m
2 sin 11
_=2
_
1:41 _ 106 Hz
_
4:655 m=s
Particle Image Velocimetry
Particle image velocimetry (PIV) measures the full-field ins
digital (A/D) converter (accuracy: 2 LSB). In testing at 180 km/hr, the
maximum average pressure
difference between the rear deck and underbody is about 8 cm H2O _ 0.10
cm H2O (95%). The
engineer is a
Bellows and Capsule Elements
A bellows sensing element is a thin-walled, flexible metal tube
formed into deep convolutions and
sealed at one end (Fig. 9.9). One end is held fixed and pressure is
appli
common laboratory standard for the calibration of pressuremeasuring devices over the
pressure range from 70 to 7 _ 107 N/m2 (0.01 to 10,000 psi). A
deadweight tester, such as
that shown in Figure 9.8,
By using semiconductor technology in pressure transducer
construction, we now have a variety
of very fast, very small, highly sensitive strain gauge diaphragm
transducers. Silicone piezoresistive
stra
Example 9.2
A high-quality U-tube manometer is a remarkably simple instrument to make.
It requires only a
transparent U-shaped tube, manometer fluid, and a scale to measure
deflection. While a U-shape
compliance, the tubing is removed at the wall tap, filled with water, and
purged of any residual air.
The transducer output is noted. Using a syringe, 1 mL of water is then added
to the system and the
R
RL
Lf
Pm
Cvp
Pa
Ea C Em
(a)
(b)
Figure 9.22 An equivalent lumped parameter
network of the pressure transmission line model of
Figure 9.21 using an electrical analogy.
Substituting Equations 9.18 to
d 6 cm p1
93:7 kPa abs
b 0:4 T1 20
_
C 293 K
H 250 cm H2O
Properties (found in Appendix B)
Air : v 1:0 _ 10
_5 m2/s
Water: rH2O
999 kg/m3
ASSUMPTIONS Treat air behavior as an ideal gas p rRT
FIND Vo
change the vapor pressure, for temperature and altitude effects
on the weight of mercury, and for
deviations from standard gravity (9.80665 m/s2 or 32.17405
ft/s2). Correction curves are provided
by i
Interpretation in strongly dynamic flows can be complicated
(17,25). Hot-film sensors are less
fragile and less susceptible to contamination than hot-wire
sensors. Probe blockage is not significant
in
A deadweight tester indicates 100.00 lb/in.2 (i.e., 100.00 psi), at 70_F in
Clemson, SC (f 34_,
z 841 ft). Manufacturer specifications for the effective piston area were
stated at 72_F so that
thermal
If we neglected the correlated effect of the pump oscillation, we would
instead be tempted to
calculate
sDp
qDp
qp1
s_p1
_ _2
qDp
qp2
s_p2
_ _2
" #1=2
0:899 kPa
which overstates the random standard
Indicated by the probe? Local atmospheric pressure at 7000 mis
approximately 45 kPa, which results
in an air density of 0.66 kg/m3. Discuss additional factors that might affect
the accuracy of the sta
KNOWN Fluid (of specific gravity S and specific weight g)
Manometer fluid (of specific gravity Sm and specific weight gm)
ASSUMPTION Densities of the fluids remain constant.
FIND Q f H
SOLUTION Equati
A T type thermopile is used to measure temperature difference across
insulation in the ceiling of a
residence in an energy monitoring program. The temperature difference
across the insulation is used
Allowing measurements ranging from the order of 0.001mm of manometer
fluid to several
meters.
The U-tube manometer in Figure 9.5 consists of a transparent tube filled with
an indicating
liquid of spec
Capsule displacement. The LVDT design has a high sensitivity and is
commonly found in pressure
transducers rated for low pressures and for small pressure ranges, such as
zero to several
hundred mm Hg
considering recovery and radiation errors, estimate the possible value for
total error in the
indicated temperature. Discuss whether this estimate of the measurement
error is conservative,
and why or
Ceramic tube that houses the lead wires. A hot-film sensor usually
consists of a thin (2 mm) platinum
or gold film deposited onto a glass substrate and covered with a
high thermal conductivity coating