BASIC CONCEPTS OF
ARGUMENTS
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What is an Argument?
To justify or defend a claim is to give reasons or
arguments to support it.
Reasoning (or inference) is a psychological
process.
When we express this process into words, we have
arguments.
An argument
Informal Fallacies
1
Formal Vs Informal Fallacies
A fallacy is a defect in an argument other
than its having false premises.
An informal fallacy is a defect in the
content of an argument. (A formal fallacy is
a defect in the structure of an argument.)
DEDUCTIVE ARGUMENTS
1
Deductive Arguments
For a deductive argument, if all its premises are
true, its conclusion is necessarily true (or it is
logically impossible for the conclusion to be
false.)
I.e., the truth of premises guarantees the truth of
conclu
Natural Deduction (1)
1
Besides using truth-table to prove the
validity of an argument, we can use another
method, called natural deduction, to do
the same.
Using this method, we can deduce step-bystep the conclusion from the premises with
the help of s
Syllogism
A syllogism is a two-premise deductive
argument.
Or, a categorical syllogism is an argument
in which both the premises and the
conclusion are categorical propositions.
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There are 3 propositions.
There are 3 terms.
Each term is used twice.
Non
Categorical Logic (I)
1
Categorical Propositions
This logical system was developed by
Aristotle more than 2000 years ago.
Categorical Logic deals with categorical
propositions.
A categorical proposition is a proposition
that relates two categories or c
Natural Deduction (2)
1
We shall learn the 10 rules of replacement.
These rules express the logical equivalence
between two statement forms such that one
can replace another.
We use the symbol : to signify the relation
of logical equivalence.
2
9. DeMo
Propositional Logic
In categorical syllogism, we deal with terms
that are related by quantifiers and copula in
four different manners.
In propositional logic, we deal with
propositions as the basic units of meaning.
All complicated propositions or argu
Introduction:
Earthquakes and Supply chains of Sony manufacturing companies growing risks
and the need for resilience
This is a decisive time for improving the supply chain management of Sony
manufacturing companies in Japan. In April 2016, a strong earth