BASIC CONCEPTS OF
What is an Argument?
To justify or defend a claim is to give reasons or
arguments to support it.
Reasoning (or inference) is a psychological
When we express this process into words, we have
Formal Vs Informal Fallacies
A fallacy is a defect in an argument other
than its having false premises.
An informal fallacy is a defect in the
content of an argument. (A formal fallacy is
a defect in the structure of an argument.)
For a deductive argument, if all its premises are
true, its conclusion is necessarily true (or it is
logically impossible for the conclusion to be
I.e., the truth of premises guarantees the truth of
Natural Deduction (1)
Besides using truth-table to prove the
validity of an argument, we can use another
method, called natural deduction, to do
Using this method, we can deduce step-bystep the conclusion from the premises with
the help of s
A syllogism is a two-premise deductive
Or, a categorical syllogism is an argument
in which both the premises and the
conclusion are categorical propositions.
There are 3 propositions.
There are 3 terms.
Each term is used twice.
Categorical Logic (I)
This logical system was developed by
Aristotle more than 2000 years ago.
Categorical Logic deals with categorical
A categorical proposition is a proposition
that relates two categories or c
Natural Deduction (2)
We shall learn the 10 rules of replacement.
These rules express the logical equivalence
between two statement forms such that one
can replace another.
We use the symbol : to signify the relation
of logical equivalence.
In categorical syllogism, we deal with terms
that are related by quantifiers and copula in
four different manners.
In propositional logic, we deal with
propositions as the basic units of meaning.
All complicated propositions or argu
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