I. MATHEMATICAL MODELS
II.
Desired
Performance
Comparison
Error
signals
III.
Controller
Sensor
I.
Input
Plant /
Process
Feedback Loop
Output
I.A
I.AModel
ModelBuilding
Building
Revised September, 2004
The process of model building
Real Life
System
Up/dow
III.B.5 Stability Analysis with G( j )
Contour Mapping
 F(s) is any function of complex variable s
 s is any contour in splane
 Contour F formed by mapping every point si on s
to become a point F(si ) in F(s)plane
F(s)plane
Splane
F(s)
F(s1)
F(s2)
III.B Frequency Response Method
Design using G ( j ) only, not G(s) as in root locus method
III.B.1 Physical Meaning of G ( j )
System with sinusoidal input of frequency
r (t ) U 0 sin t
y(t ) ?
M
 Transfer Function
G( s )
 Output
G(s)
C (s z )
i
i 1
II.C. Steady State Tracking and System Type
Ability of a control system to track (or follow) given input?
r(t)
System
y(t)
i.e., will e(t ) r (t ) y(t ) 0 for t large?
Some general ideas  by applying step, ramp, and parabolic
inputs to Unity Feedback S
II. FEEDBACK CONTROL SYSTEMS
II.A Advantage of Feedback
Idealized performance of control system:
Output Y(s) = Desired performance R(s)
(Up to possibly a scaling constant)
R(s)
1
Control
System
Y(s)
1
Use Step input here for illustration
II.A.1. Perform
III. CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN
II.
Desired
Performance
Comparison
Error
signals
III.
Controller
Sensor
I.
Input
Plant /
Process
Feedback Loop
Output
III. A Root Locus Design Method
III.A.1 Root Locus Concepts
Definition
R(s)
+

K
G(s)
Y(s)
 Open loop trans
II.B. Performance Specification
Objective of control desirable output
Question 1: What is desirable?
Question 2: For which inputs?
Answer: Define quantitative output specifications
for inputs used in targeted applications
Usual inputs in applications: s
III.A.3. Control System Design Using Root locus
Basic Idea:
Performance specifications
yield Allowable Region for closed loop poles
+
Root locus
yield trajectories of closed loop poles as K:0
Possible design
if portion of root locus inside Allowable Reg
MAEG2030 Thermodynamics
Assignment 7 (Due on Mar 29, 2017)
Problem 1. Water at 200 kPa and 10 oC enters a mixing chamber at a rate of 135 kg/min where it
is mixed steadily with steam entering at 200 kPa and 150 oC. The mixture leaves the chamber at
200 kP
MAEG2030 Thermodynamics
Assignment 4 (Due on Mar 01, 2017)
Problem 1. Saturated water vapor is isothermally condensed to a saturated liquid at 200 oC in a
pistoncylinder device. It is a constant pressure process. Determine the heat transfer per unit mass
MAEG2030 Thermodynamics
Assignment 10 (Due on Apr 19, 2017)
Problem 1. A refrigerator operates on the ideal vaporcompression refrigeration cycle with
refrigerant134a as the working fluid. The refrigerant evaporates at 10 oC and condenses at 57.88
o
C.
MAEG2030 Thermodynamics
Assignment 6 (Due on Mar 22, 2017)
Problem 1. A refrigerator is used to cool water from 23 to 5 oC in a continuous manner. The heat
rejected in the condenser is 570 kJ/min and the power is 2.65 kW. Determine the rate at which
water
MAEG2030 Thermodynamics
Assignment 8 (Due on Apr 05, 2017)
(Note: There are several methods to do the calculations. This solution only shows one of them.)
Problem 1. Consider an airstandard Otto cycle when the compression ratio is 8, takes in air at 95
k
MAEG2030 Thermodynamics
Assignment 10 (Due on Apr 19, 2017)
Problem 1. A refrigerator operates on the ideal vaporcompression refrigeration cycle with
refrigerant134a as the working fluid. The refrigerant evaporates at 10 oC and condenses at 57.88
o
C.
MAEG2030 Thermodynamics
Assignment 9 (Due on Apr 12, 2017)
Problem 1. A simple Rankine cycle uses water as the working fluid. The boiler operates at 6000
kPa and the condenser at 50 kPa. At the entrance to the turbine, the temperature is 450 oC. The
isent
MAEG2030 Thermodynamics
Assignment 5 (Due on Mar 13, 2017)
Problem 1. Steam enters a nozzle at 400 oC and 400 kPa with a velocity of 60 m/s, and leaves at
300 oC and 200 kPa while losing heat at a rate of 75 kW. For an inlet area of 50 cm2, determine
the
MAEG2030 Thermodynamics
Assignment 2 (Due on Feb 08, 2017)
Problem 1. The driving force for fluid flow is the pressure difference, and a pump operates by
raising the pressure of a fluid (by converting the mechanical shaft work to flow energy). A gasoline
MAEG2030 Thermodynamics
Assignment 8 (Due on Apr 05, 2017)
Problem 1. Consider an airstandard Otto cycle when the compression ratio is 8, takes in air at 95
kPa and 15 oC, and the maximum cycle temperature is 1200 oC. Determine the heat transferred to
an
MAEG2030 Thermodynamics
Assignment 1 (Due on Jan 23, 2017)
Problem 1. A 4 kW resistance heater in a water heater runs for 3 hours to raise the water
temperature to the desired level. Determine the amount of electric energy used in both kWh and
kJ.
Problem
MAEG2030 Thermodynamics
Assignment 6 (Due on Mar 22, 2017)
Problem 1. A refrigerator is used to cool water from 23 to 5 oC in a continuous manner. The heat
rejected in the condenser is 570 kJ/min and the power is 2.65 kW. Determine the rate at which
water
MAEG2030 Thermodynamics
Assignment 9 (Due on Apr 12, 2017)
Problem 1. A simple Rankine cycle uses water as the working fluid. The boiler operates at 6000
kPa and the condenser at 50 kPa. At the entrance to the turbine, the temperature is 450 oC. The
isent
MAEG2030 Thermodynamics
Assignment 7 (Due on Mar 29, 2017)
Problem 1. Water at 200 kPa and 10 oC enters a mixing chamber at a rate of 135 kg/min where it
is mixed steadily with steam entering at 200 kPa and 150 oC. The mixture leaves the chamber at
200 kP
Maeg2030 Tutorial 2
23 Jan 2017
By Rainbow Lee
1
2
3
4
5
Problem 1
Consider a river flowing toward a lake at an average velocity
of 3 m/s at a rate of 500 m3/s at a location 90 m above the
lake surface. Determine the total mechanical energy of the
river w
Tutorial : Basic Concepts of Thermodynanmics
MAEG2030 Thermodynamics
TA: Wei Huang
15/1/2017
1
Highlight of Some Important Concepts
Dimensions and Unit:
Any physical quantity can be characterized by dimensions.
The magnitudes assigned to the dimensions ar
MAEG2030 Thermodynamics
Assignment 4 (Due on Mar 01, 2017)
Problem 1. Saturated water vapor is isothermally condensed to a saturated liquid at 200 oC in a
pistoncylinder device. It is a constant pressure process. Determine the heat transfer per unit mass
MAEG2030 Thermodynamics
Assignment 3 (Due on Feb 15, 2017)
Problem 1. If sufficient data are provided, complete the blank cells in the following table of
properties of water. In the last column describe the condition of water as compressed liquid,
saturat
MAEG2030 Thermodynamics
Assignment 2 (Due on Feb 08, 2017)
Problem 1. The driving force for fluid flow is the pressure difference, and a pump operates by
raising the pressure of a fluid (by converting the mechanical shaft work to flow energy). A gasoline
MAEG2030 Thermodynamics
Assignment 5 (Due on Mar 13, 2017)
Problem 1. Steam enters a nozzle at 400 oC and 400 kPa with a velocity of 60 m/s, and leaves at
300 oC and 200 kPa while losing heat at a rate of 75 kW. For an inlet area of 50 cm2, determine
the