Chapter 7: The Distribution of
Sample Means
Samples and Populations
Samples provide an incomplete picture of the
population.
There are aspects of the population that may not
be included within a sample.
The sampling error is the error between a
sample
Chapter 12: Introduction to Analysis
of Variance
The Logic and the Process of Analysis
of Variance
Chapter 12 presents the general logic and basic
formulas for the hypothesis testing procedure
known as analysis of variance (ANOVA).
The purpose of ANOVA
One of Vygotskys central contributions to psychological thought was his emphasis on socially
meaningful activity as an important influence on human consciousness ( Bredo, 1997; Kozulin,
1986; Tudge & Winterhoff, 1993). Vygotsky attempted to explain human
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