The Looming Energy Crisis and Global warming: Is Nuclear Power the answer?
Wednesday, August 02, 2006 Hartford Courant
Romualdo deSouza, Indiana University
Growing global energy needs !
With oil and natural gas prices expected to continue rising, coal is
Lecture 20 Nuclear Power I. Principles of Operation A.
Review of Neutron Induced Fission
A +1 ZX
* < 10- 18 s
Z 1 X1 + Z 2 X 2 + n + Q 1 2
Bookkeeping: A + 1 = A1 + A2 + Z = Z1 + Z2 Q 180 MeV 2 1010 kJ/mole Ekinetic
+ E*1 + E*2 ~ 20
Lecture 19: Biological Effects of Radiation I. Radiation Chemistry Interaction of Radiation with Matter: Emphasis on effect of medium on incident radiation Biological Effects of Radiation: Emphasis on effect of radiation on medium dE/dx AZ2/E dE/dx E A. C
Lecture 18: Origin of the Elements 2
Hertzsprung Russell Diagram
Temperature, size and luminosity
We know that for objects that are approximately blackbodies
Hotter things are brighter.
Energy radiated per unit time per unit area is proportional to T4
Lecture 17 Origin of the Elements MODEL: Origin of the Elements or Nucleosynthesis Fundamental Particles quarks, gluons, leptons, photons, neutrinos + Basic Forces gravity, electromagnetic, nuclear
Universe: Interactions Conservation Laws Elemental Abunda
Lecture 16 Nuclear Reactions II D. Decay During Bombardment 1. Production of radioactive products that decay during bombardment is an important consideration in isotope preparation (secular equilibrium).
N Decay Rate
C production in atmosphere
Lecture 14 Nuclear Decay kinetics : Transient and Secular Equilibrium
Parent-Daughter Relationships (The Rate-Determining Step) A. Case of Radioactive Daughter A B C e.g.
5.01 d - Po
138.4 d Pb Stable
Same problem as a stepwise chemical
Lecture 13: Radioactive Decay Kinetics I. Kinetics of First-Order Processes A. Mechanism: 1. Nucleus has Internal Structure A A Z X B + Z Y + Q B Decay involves internal rearrangement of system.
QB = +
RANDOM PROCESS: Identical to Unimolecular Decom
Lecture 12 Radioactive Decay modes : Gamma, Fission, Cluster, Delayed n/p, Double Beta decay
Gamma Decay Analogous process to photon emission from atoms and molecules (uv, x-rays, IR .) A X Am X 0 + A X where m * = excited state Z Z 0 Z E Q (recoil en
Let's consider what we learned in the last lecture.
Th + 4He + Q
Conservation of energy (and equivalence with mass) yields: Q = (238U) (234Th) + (4He) Q = (47.305) (40.610) (2.425) = 4.27 MeV Q > 0. What does this tell us ?
Lecture 10: Nuclear Potentials and Radioactive Decay I. Nuclear Stability and Basic Decay Modes A. Schematic Representation: Synthesis X + Y + Energy ( 10-20s)
( ~ 10- - 10
Equilibration A Z* Z
Composite Nucleus (Activated Complex) B. Stabl
I. Charged Particle Detectors A. Scintillators B. Gas Detectors 1. Ionization Chambers 2. Proportional Counters 3. Avalanche detectors 4. Geiger-Muller counters 5. Spark detectors C. Solid State Detectors
II. Gamma ray detection (Scintillators,
LECTURE 6: INTERACTION OF RADIATION WITH MATTER All radiation is detected through its interaction with matter! INTRODUCTION: What happens when radiation passes through matter? Interlude The concept of cross-section For a thin target:
N = ( I )( )(t ) N
Lecture 4 : Beta stability, the LD Mass Formula, and Accelerators Simplest form of LD Mass Formula TBE = C1A - C2A2/3 - C3Z2/A1/3 - C4(N-Z)2/A2 + C6/A1/2 <BE> = C1 - C2A-1/3 - C3Z2/A4/3 - C4(N-Z)2/A3 + C6/A3/2 E. Line of Beta Stability Isobars 1. Beta D
Lecture 3 Nuclear Decay modes, Nuclear Sizes, shapes, and the Liquid drop model
Introduction to Decay modes (continued)
Electromagnetic radiation corresponding to transition of nucleus from a higher excited state to a lower excited state
Lecture 2: Chart of the Nuclides, Binding, and Decay modes
What is the following device?
What applications is it used in ? What physical relation that we studied in the course is it associated with?
Chart of Nuclides: Not all combinations of neutrons and
C460 EXAM I
October 7, 2010
Periodic Table of the Blanems
Mass Defects A in MeV
Section 3: Nuclear Stability and Radioactive Decay Modes
In a practical sense the definition of stability is a relative one. Time of observation is one factor. Sensitivity of detection devices is another. The stable nuclei are those near the peak of the b
NUCLEAR WALLET CARDS
Jagdish K. Tuli National Nuclear Data Center www.nndc.bnl.gov
Brookhaven National Laboratory P.O. Box 5000 Upton, New York 119735000 U.S.A.
This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of
Lecture 1: Radioactivity, Radiation and the Structure of the atom
Consider the periodic Table. Atoms combine (form bonds) to make molecules in compounds. Molecules have shape and can react to form other molecules. Atomic reactivity is a consequence of ele
Forces, Potentials, and the Shell Model
Recall the Infinite Square Well (1D)
Solve Shroedinger's equation: H = E d2 - V = E dx 2 Result: Consideration of boundary conditions (the behavior of the wavefunction at the walls) results in quantization. Both wav
SECTION 8: Nuclear Models The Liquid Drop
Theoretical models of the nucleus encounter two principal problems: (1) There is no exact mathematical expression that accounts for the nuclear force, unlike the atomic case, for which the electromagnetic force is
SECTION 7: Nuclear Sizes and Shapes
Imagine you suddenly find yourself immersed in a dense fog in an unfamiliar location and need to explore your surroundings before attempting to move on. How can you learn the nature of your environment without being abl
Section 5: Interactions of Radiation with Matter All radiation is detected through its interaction with matter. This section will focus on what happens to a particle and its environment when radiation passes through matter, schematically particle medium
Section 4 : Accelerators
In addition to their critical role in the evolution of nuclear science, nuclear particle accelerators have become an essential tool in both industry and medicine. Table 4.1 summarizes the number of nuclear particle accelerators wo