Buttons: Widely used as garment closures since the Middle Ages. Most buttons have aesthetic
purposes and functional use. Four Types:
1) Plastic: molded from nylon or stamped out of polyester
2) Natural: only 10% of buttons with wood, metal, animal horns,
Gores: vertical divisions within a garment, usually tapered panels seamed together to add shape
to a garment. They serve as dart equivalents by incorporating the dart shape in the seams. Skirts
are frequently gored.
Gathers: gathering is the drawing toget
Interfacing: supporting fabric used in almost all garments. Interfacing lends body, shape and
reinforcement to limited areas. Collars, collar bands, cuffs, buttons and buttonholes, pockets,
waistbands and other small design details are usually interfaced.
Cuffs: are the banded or turned-back finished at the lower edges of sleeve and pant legs. Crisp,
well-made cuffs contribute to the overall appearance of a garments quality. They control fullness
of the sleeve to fit the wrist, or the arm in the case of sh
Five Elements of Fit
1) grain: for good fit, the garment must be cut on grain. The lengthwise grain or yarns of the
fabric need to run parallel to the length of the body at center front and center back, down
the center of the arm from shoulder to elbow, a
Fabric: the textile material from which ready-to-wear garments are produced from. Fabric
makes the single largest contribution to cost of anything in a ready-to-wear garment. There is a
direct correlation between quality of fabric and quality of garment.
Yarns: a group of fibers is twisted or spun into a continuous strand called a yarn, used to make
fabric. A fabrics yarns affect functional and aesthetic performance, for example, hand, including
drapability and texture, luster, durability, including stren
Dye Application: fabrics can be dyed in the fiber, yarn, fabric or garment stage.
1) Solution dyeing: the dyeing of manufactured fibers before the fibers are formed, while
they are still in a liquid stage. Fabrics made from solution dying have the best
Dye Lot: color consistency of fabric within the same garment of outfit is important. Fabric
producers can only dye a limited number of yards in each bath or DYE LOT
Shade Lot: after dyeing, swatches of the fabric are inspected under specific lighting cond
Shrinkage: occurs when a garment or garment part becomes smaller, usually when it is
laundered. Shrinkage is a major part of consumer dissatisfaction.
Colorfastness: the ability of the fabric to retain its
Thread Strength: the strength of a thread is critical to the durability of stitches and seams.
Repeated breakage of weak thread slows down the manufacturing process. An important and
easy to measure aspect of thread strength is single end strength, the st
Grain - the orientation of the yarns that make up the fabric. Two sets of yarns interlaced at right
angles to one another make up a quality woven fabric. Knit fabric has one continuous yarn
instead of two yarns, For this reason, knits do not technically h