Forces, Potentials, and the Shell Model
Recall the Infinite Square Well (1D)
Solve Shroedingers equation: H = E
d2
V = E
dx 2
Result:
Consideration of boundary conditions (the behavior of the wavefunction at the walls)
results in quantization.
Both wavef
Lecture 14 Nuclear Decay kinetics : Transient and Secular Equilibrium
IV.
Parent-Daughter Relationships
(The Rate-Determining Step)
A.
Case of Radioactive Daughter
210
A
Bi
Po
e.g.
B
5.01 d
210
138.4 d
206
Pb
C
Stable
Same problem as a stepwise chemic
70
Lecture 13: Radioactive Decay Kinetics
I.
Kinetics of First-Order Processes
A.
Mechanism:
1. Nucleus has Internal Structure
A
A
Z X B + Z Y + Q B
;
QB = +
Decay involves internal
rearrangement of system.
RANDOM PROCESS: Identical to Unimolecular Decom
Introduction to Quantum Mechanics (Prelude to Nuclear Shell Model)
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
In the microscopic world,
x p
h
2
If you try to specify/measure the exact position of a particle you cannot
simultaneously know its momentum exactly.
If y
Lecture 2: Chart of the Nuclides, Binding, and Decay modes
What is the following device?
What applications is it used in ? What physical relation that we studied in the course
is it associated with?
Chart of Nuclides: Not all combinations of neutrons and
Lecture 1: Radioactivity, Radiation and the Structure of the atom
Consider the periodic Table. Atoms combine (form bonds) to make molecules in
compounds. Molecules have shape and can react to form other molecules. Atomic
reactivity is a consequence of ele
Lets consider what we learned in the last lecture.
238
U 234Th + 4He + Q
Conservation of energy (and equivalence with mass) yields:
Q = (238U) (234Th) + (4He)
Q = (47.305) (40.610) (2.425) = 4.27 MeV
Q > 0. What does this tell us ?
238
U 237U + n
Qn = (23
Lecture 12 Radioactive Decay modes : Gamma, Fission, Cluster, Delayed n/p, Double Beta decay
IV.
Gamma Decay
Analogous process to photon emission from atoms and molecules (uv, x-rays, IR )
A X Am X 0 + A X where m * = excited state
Z
Z
0
Z
E Q (recoil ene
1
Lecture 4 : Beta stability, the LD Mass Formula, and Accelerators
Simplest form of LD Mass Formula
TBE =
C1A C2A2/3 C3Z2/A1/3 C4(N-Z)2/A2 + C6/A1/2
<BE> =
C1
C2A1/3 C3Z2/A4/3 C4(N-Z)2/A3 + C6/A3/2
E.
Line of Beta Stability Isobars
1. Beta Decay Form of
LECTURE 5: INTERACTION OF RADIATION WITH MATTER
All radiation is detected through its interaction with matter!
INTRODUCTION: What happens when radiation passes through matter?
Emphasis on what happens to emitted particle (if no nuclear
reaction and MEDIU
1
Lecture 3 Nuclear Decay modes, Nuclear Sizes, shapes, and the Liquid drop model
Introduction to Decay modes (continued)
Gamma Decay
Electromagnetic radiation corresponding to transition of nucleus
from a higher excited state to a lower excited state.
A
DETECTORS
I.
Charged Particle Detectors
A. Scintillators
B. Gas Detectors
1. Ionization Chambers
2. Proportional Counters
3. Avalanche detectors
4. Geiger-Muller counters
5. Spark detectors
C.
Solid State Detectors
II. Gamma ray detection (Scintillators,
LECTURE 6: INTERACTION OF RADIATION WITH MATTER
All radiation is detected through its interaction with matter!
INTRODUCTION: What happens when radiation passes through matter?
Interlude The concept of cross-section
For a thin target:
I
N = ( I )( )(t )
N