Lecture 20 Nuclear Power I. Principles of Operation A.
Review of Neutron Induced Fission
A +1 ZX
* 10 18 s
Z 1 X1 + Z 2 X 2 + n + Q 1 2
Bookkeeping: A + 1 = A1 + A2 + Z = Z1 + Z2 Q 180 MeV 2 1010 kJ/mole Ekinetic
+ E*1 + E*2 ~ 20 MeV ACTI
Lecture 17 Origin of the Elements MODEL: Origin of the Elements or Nucleosynthesis Fundamental Particles quarks, gluons, leptons, photons, neutrinos + Basic Forces gravity, electromagnetic, nuclear
Universe: Interactions Conservation Laws Elemental Abunda
L Lecture 18 Origin of the Elem 8: o ments 2
H Hertzsprung Ru ussell Diagram
Temperature, size and luminosity
We know that for objects that are approximately blackbodies
Hotter things are brighter. 4 o Energy radiated per unit time per unit area is propor
Lecture 19: Biological Effects of Radiation I. Radiation Chemistry Interaction of Radiation with Matter: Emphasis on effect of medium on incident radiation Biological Effects of Radiation: Emphasis on effect of radiation on medium dE/dx AZ2/E dE/dx E A. C
Just saying 'No'
Helium-3 Shortage Could Put Freeze
0n Low-Temperature Research
The weird effects of quantum mechanics
often emerge at extremely low temperatures.
So 3 years ago, Moty Heiblum, a physicist at
supporters like Kirk F. Sorensen, who par ticipated in the Washington meeting, to outline a couple ofarguments that catch the attention of energy-conscientious listeners. By day, Sorensen is an aerospace engineer at the National Aeronautics & Space Admini
SECTION 1: INTRODUCTION Chemistry is the science of atoms their electronic structure, reactivity and the shapes, sizes and functionality of the compounds they form. Atomic properties are summarized in the form of the Periodic Table, which Mendeleev concei
1. Section 2: Nuclear Energetics
The energy stored in atomic nuclei is more than a million times greater than that from chemical reactions and is a driving force in the evolution of our Universe. The energy radiated by our Sun is the consequence of nuclea
Section 4 : Accelerators
In addition to their critical role in the evolution of nuclear science, nuclear particle accelerators have become an essential tool in both industry and medicine. Table 4.1 summarizes the number of nuclear particle accelerators wo
SECTION 6: Detectors
The evolution of nuclear science and technology has been strongly dependent on
advances in the design of devices to detect the various forms and energies of nuclear
radiation. These vary from rudimentary detectors such as Geiger count
Section 9: Forces, Potentials, and the Shell Model
As discussed in Section 7, the nucleus resembles a uniform density sphere. The forces acting on such a system can be described by a one-dimensional square-well potential (SW), shown in Fig. 9.1. 0 V(r) =
SECTION 10: Alpha Decay
Alpha decay involves the emission of a 4He nucleus from a heavy element, represented
by the generic equation
4 He + A-4 Y + Q .
Note that the chemical states of the products of this reaction involve a 2+ charge
SECTION 12: Gamma Decay
Gamma decay involves photon emission from an excited nucleus, a process directly
analogous to photon emission from excited atoms or molecules (xrays, uv IR, etc.). Thus,
gamma decay converts the nucleus to a lower energy state, acc
Section 13: Exotic Decay Modes
In addition to the principal decay modes alpha, beta and gamma decay there are
several rare decay modes. These usually occur from nuclei far away from the line of beta
stability (Fig. 2.1) or for very heavy nuclei.
SECTION 14: Radioactive Decay Kinetics
Just as in the case with atoms and molecules, the nucleus has internal structure and
depending on the available energy, can undergo transformation to more stable species. A
chemical analogy is th
SECTION 15: Nuclear Reactions
Nuclear reactions provide the energy that fuels our universe. From the perspective of basic research, the focus is on understanding nuclear reaction mechanisms and structure, as well as the synthesis of exotic nuclei that do
SECTION 16: Origin of the Elements
Current understanding of the origin of the chemical elements, or nucleosynthesis, can be traced to the classic paper of Burbidge, Burbidge, Fowler and Hoyle (Rev. Mod. Phys. 29, 547 (1957). In it, they laid out the frame
Lecture 16 Nuclear Reactions II D. Decay During Bombardment 1. Production of radioactive products that decay during bombardment is an important consideration in isotope preparation (secular equilibrium).
N Decay Rate
C production in atmosphere a
The Looming Energy Crisis and Global warming: Is Nuclear Power the answer?
Wednesday, August 02, 2006 Hartford Courant
Romualdo deSouza, Indiana University
Growing global energy needs !
With oil and natural gas prices expected to continue rising, coal is
210 Pb, 137 Cs, and Metal Analysis of Two Lake Michigan Sediment Cores
1 1 2 1 Carolina Contreras , Christopher W. Avery , Paul A DeYoung , Natalie L. Hoogeveen , Utsab 2 1 3 Khadka , Graham F. Peaslee , Richard R. Rediske 1 Chemistry Department and 2 Ph
Lecture 1: Radioactivity, Radiation and the Structure of the atom
Consider the periodic Table. Atoms combine (form bonds) to make molecules in compounds. Molecules have shape and can react to form other molecules. Atomic reactivity is a consequence of ele
Lecture 2: Chart of the Nuclides, Binding, and Decay modes
What is the following device?
What applications is it used in ? What physical relation that we studied in the course is it associated with?
Chart of Nuclides: Not all combinations of neutrons and
Lecture 3 Nuclear Decay modes, Nuclear Sizes, shapes, and the Liquid drop model
Introduction to Decay modes (continued)
Electromagnetic radiation corresponding to transition of nucleus from a higher excited state to a lower excited state
Lecture 4 : Beta stability, the LD Mass Formula, and Accelerators Simplest form of LD Mass Formula TBE = C1A C2A2/3 C3Z2/A1/3 C4(N-Z)2/A2 + C6/A1/2 <BE> = C1 C2A1/3 C3Z2/A4/3 C4(N-Z)2/A3 + C6/A3/2 E. Line of Beta Stability Isobars 1. Beta Decay Form of
LECTURE 5: INTERACTION OF RADIATION WITH MATTER All radiation is detected through its interaction with matter! INTRODUCTION: What happens when radiation passes through matter? Emphasis on what happens to emitted particle (if no nuclear reaction and MEDIUM
LECTURE 6: INTERACTION OF RADIATION WITH MATTER All radiation is detected through its interaction with matter! INTRODUCTION: What happens when radiation passes through matter? Interlude The concept of cross-section For a thin target:
N ( I )( )(t ) N =
I. Charged Particle Detectors A. Scintillators B. Gas Detectors 1. Ionization Chambers 2. Proportional Counters 3. Avalanche detectors 4. Geiger-Muller counters 5. Spark detectors C. Solid State Detectors
II. Gamma ray detection (Scintillators,
Introduction to Quantum Mechanics (Prelude to Nuclear Shell Model) Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle In the microscopic world,
If you try to specify/measure the exact position of a particle you cannot simultaneously know its momentum exactly. If