Chapter 14: The Cardiovascular System
Cardiovascular System: a circulatory system comprising a heart, blood vessels
(vasculature), and blood (cells and plasma).
A) Substances transported by Cardiovascular System:
a. Nutrients, water and gases that enter t
Chapter 12: Muscles: Skeletal and Smooth
Three types of Muscle: Skeletal, Cardiac, and Smooth
Cardiac and Skeletal are both striated b/c they exhibit light and dark bands under
Smooth Muscle: Primary muscle of internal organ and tubes
Chapter 11: Efferent Division: Autonomic and Somatic Motor Control
Peripheral Nervous System Efferent Division
1) Somatic Motor Neurons (control skeletal muscle for voluntary control)
2) Autonomic Neurons (control smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands, an
Chapter 8: Neurons: Cellular and Network Properties
The nervous system can be divided into two parts:
-Central Nervous System (CNS): Brain and spinal cord
-Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): Consists of afferent (sensory) neurons
and efferent neurons.
Chapter 15: Blood Flow and the Control of Blood Pressure
Order of decreasing diameter:
Vein > Artery > Arteriole > Venule > Capillary
-The systemic arteries: act as a pressure reservoir, releasing pressure through elastic
recoil and maintaining blood flow
Chapter 6: Communication, Integration, and Homeostasis
Cell to Cell Communication:
Four basic methods of cell to cell communication:
1) Gap Junctions:
a. direct cytoplasmic transfer of electrical and chemical signals btwn adjacent
b. Adjacent cells
Chapter 7: Introduction to the Endocrine System
Endocrinology: The study of hormones.
- Chemical messengers secreted by specialized cell(s) into blood for transport to a
distant target, where it exerts itself at very low concent
Chapter 9: The Central Nervous System
Cerebrum: Forebrain, frontal brain for cognition and reasoning
Cerebellum: Hindbrain for movement and balance.
Anatomy of CNS:
Neural plate: flattened plate in very embryo consisting of cells that will become the
Chapter 10: Sensory Physiology (pg 333-249)
-Simplest receptors are for pain and itch, more complex systems include sense
organs of eyes and ears.
Types of Receptors:
1) Chemoreceptors: respond to chemical ligands (taste and smell)
Chapter 13: Integrative Physiology I: Control of Body Movement
Reflex: Integration of sensory information into an involuntary response.
Neural reflexes are classified by:
1) The efferent division that controls the response:
a. Somatic reflexes (skeletal m
Drive Reduction Theory
Behavior is motivated by biological needs
Primary drives - biological
Secondary drives - learned drives
Arousal - Yerkes-Dodson Law - optimal performance is medium arousal
Opponent process theory - motivation to return to baseline a
Thoughts & Actions - determined by biological drives, understanding of
satisfying the drives, and prohibitions of society
From childhood experiences
Fixation - attachment to ear
At birth, brain is developed to support basic reflexes
Culture influences how quickly infants develop motor control
Dynamic systems thoery
Development is self organizing - when new forms of behavior emerge
through consistent interact
Individual choice and free will
(Determinist) - All behaviors caused by past conditioning
Choose most of our behaviors, guide by physiological, emotional, and spiritual
Not easily tested by scientific method
QUEST ION 1
Retrieval is the memo ry process tha t
O transforms infor mation into a form tha t can be stored in memory.
occurs when information that was retained in memory comes out of storage.
. so tha t it can be retained over lime
Which of the followi ng is a feat ure of the deepes t level of processing in memory?
O It deals with recognizing and labeling a stimulus.
O It involves t hinking about the meaning of a stimu lus
O It predomi nantly uses the am
On psych website, quizzes are optional
How to study for Irene tests:
Rewrite notes before next class
Read notes out loud
All tests: everything is from notes or what she speaks about in class. Nothing from t
Sensation & Perception: Intro
Defining Sensation and Perception
Sensation: sense organ
psychological: the immediate experience of simple stimuli
(basic properties of object)
biological: stimulation of the sense organs
transmits neural impulses (info) to other neurons,
glands, & muscles
(will have to
100 billion neurons
-neurogenesis (where new neurons are made) occurs in hippocampus
-hippocampus is responsible for submitting long term memory
Def: current awareness of internal and external stimuli
1.Monitoring: keeping track of body and whats happening in world
a. dont attend to all stimuli: screen out irrelevant info. Reticular
b. notice change in
The Science of Psychology
Psyche (breath of life in Greek)
1. Soul or spirit
2. Loosely translated: mind
Logos = knowledge = study
Original def: study of the mind
Todays def: scientific study of mental and behavioral pro
1. Almost instantly, victims who have a stroke realize that something is wrong. However,
some brain injuries are not so obvious, such as the chronic brain injury that has been
found in dozens of retired NFL players, hockey players, and boxers. What is the
Goals of Psychology: describe, predict, understand, & control behavior.
When did Psychology start? As a science, 1879.
independent variable - whatever we manipulate. what ppl come assigned to their groups with,
wanting it to be the only thing th
Study Guide for General Psychology Final Exam
Know what each different type of psychologist does.
Psychology: The scientific study of overt behavior and mental processes.
1) Stating the problem
2) Forming a theory
Theory - general idea
Understand the 4 theories of motivation.
1) Drive: need drive response goal
system allows for survival (individual or species)
a biological need, something that you have to have to survive as a person or species.
produces a drive within you, internal thin
Know what aspects of the prenatal environment can influence the fetus and how.
1) Diet: prenatal vitamins are important, good nutrition is important for development of brain
2) Infection: if mothers get certain infections, could cause major toll on baby
Genetics, a negative explanatory style, and misuse of alcohol can play a role in developing or
worsening depression. Alternatively, psychotherapy, a positive explanatory style and proper
drug therapy can contribute to alleviating depression.
First, a pers
Unit 7 FRQ
The population of this experiment is all college students. However, since Professor Proust will not be able
to test every college student in the world, she must pick a random sample of college students to use for
this experiment. It is
Unit 9 FRQ
Jean Piaget studied cognitive development and created four stages that he believes every
person goes through. These stages are the sensorimotor period, preoperational period, concrete
operational period and formal operatio
Unit 7 Observation Journal Assignment
After completing the forgetting journal and listening to what other students said they had
forgotten throughout the week, I was surprised to see how much a person actually