Option E Neurobiology and Behavior
E1 Stimulus and Response
E.1.1 Define the term stimulus, response and reflex in the context of animal behavior
A stimulus is a change in the environment (internal and external) that is detected by a receptor.
Topic 4.4, 10.2 and 10.3
4.4.1 Outline the use of polymerase chain reaction to copy and amplify minute quantities of
PCR is used to produce copies of specific DNA sequence from a very small initial sample size.
Small samples of semen, blood, other tis
Topic 4 and 10.1
4.1.1 State that the eukaryote chromosomes are made of DNA and proteins
4.1.2. Define gene, allele, and genome
Genes-a heritable factor that controls a specific characteristic
Alleles-one specific form of a gene, differing form other alle
Topic 2 Cells:
2.1.1 Outline the cell theory
a. All living organisms are composed of cells
b. Cells are the smallest units of life. The chemical reactions of life (e.g.
respiration) occur inside cells.
c. All cells come from pre-existing cells by cell div
Topic 3: Chemistry of Life
3.1.1 State that the most frequently occurring chemical elements in living things are
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen
3.1.2 State that a variety of other elements are needed by living organisms, including sulfur,
Topic 5 Ecology and Evolution
5.1.1 Define species, habitat, population, community, ecosystem and ecology
Species: a group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring.
Habitat: the environment where a species normally lives or the locat
Topic 7 Nucleic Acids and proteins
7.1.1 Describe the structure of DNA, including the antiparallel
strands, 3-5 linkages and hydrogen bonding between purines and
The nucleotides within each strand are joined by covalent bonds. The
Topic 6 and 11
6.1.1 Explain why digestion of large food molecules is essential
Digestion of large molecules is essential because digestion allows for food such as a hamburger
to go from large to small molecules which will be able to pass through the plas
8.1.1 State that oxidation involves the loss of electrons from an element, whereas
reduction involves a gain of electrons; and that oxidation frequently involves gaining
oxygen or losing hydrogen, whereas reduction frequently involves losing oxygen or
Option D Evolution
D1 Origin of life on Earth
D.1.1 Describe four processes needed for the spontaneous origin of life on Earth
The non-living synthesis of simple organic molecules (i.e. amino acids from inorganic
molecules such as water, carbon dioxide a
Topic 9 Plant Science
9.1.1 Draw and label plant diagrams to show the distribution
of tissues in the stem and leaf of a dicotyledonous plant.
Transports the products of photosynthesis out of the leaf