Chapter 15: Respiratory System
STRUCTURE (Figure 15-1)
To distribute air close enough to blood for a
gas exchange to take place between air and blood (via diffusion)
Chapter 19: Fluid and Electrolyte Balance
BODY FLUID VOLUMES
Water is most abundant body compound
References to average body water volume based on healthy, non-obese, young adults
o Water is 75% of body weight newborns, 60% in males; 50% in females (Fig
CHAPTER 11: ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
The Endocrine System is the second greatest controlling system of the body. It performs
the same general functions as the nervous system (e.g. communication and control) via
specialized glands that secrete chemicals called hor
CHAPTER 7: SKELETAL SYSTEM
FUNCTIONS OF SKELETAL SYSTEM
Support supports and gives shape to the body
Protection protects internal organs
Movement makes movement possible (along with the muscular system)
Storage bones store calcium (99% of the bodys calciu
CHAPTER 12: BLOOD
BLOOD COMPOSITION (Fig 12-1 and Table 12-1)
Blood is a liquid connective tissue that is made up of two basic components:
1 - a liquid component called plasma
2 - many different types of formed elements (cells) suspended in the plasma
Chapter 18: Urinary System
Normal operation of the urinary system is central to the normal composition of the blood.
STRUCTURE OF THE URINARY SYSTEM: Fig 18-1
Location (Figure 18-1)
under back muscles a
Chapter 20: Acid-Base Balance
Acid-base balance (pH) is another component of maintaining homeostasis
pH has a direct relationship to the hydrogen-ion concentration of fluid
The three primary influences controlling pH of body fluid are:
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO THE BODY
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY DEFINED
Anatomy = Structure
Physiology = Function
LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION (Figure 1.2)
o Chemical level (atoms, molecules)
o Cellular level (cells) cell is the smallest living
unit in the body
Compare and contrast the terms Anatomy and Physiology.
Anatomy is the structure of the components of the body, and Physiology is the
function of the components of the body
Name and describe the ten anatomical direction terms to describe wher
What are the functions of the skeletal system?
Name the types of bones.
Explain the structure of a long bone.
Diaphysis or shaft: the hollow tube made of ha
What is a cell comprised of?
o Internal living material of cell
o Occupies the space between the membrane and the nucleus
o Thin and delicate
o Two layers of phospholipids
o Cholesterol to stabilize the phospholi
What is DNA? What is RNA?
DNA is deoxyribonucleic acid
o The master code for assembling proteins
o Four bases: A, C, T, and G (A/T pair; G/C pair)
o Double helix
RNA is ribonucleic acid
o A working copy of a gene
o Four bases: A, U, C and G
Name and describe the different types of muscle tissue.
o Voluntary muscle; also called striated muscle
o 40-50% of body weight
o attached to bones
o Multi-nucleated cells, and microscopic cross-stripes or striations
What are the two major types of membranes found in the body?
o Epithelial tissue layer
o Underlying layer of connective tissue
o Three types:
Primary organ of integumentary system