Structure of Alcohols
The functional group of an alcohol is an -OH
group bonded to an sp3 hybridized carbon.
Bond angles about the hydroxyl oxygen atom are
approximately 109.5 (Figure 10.1).
Oxygen is sp3 hybridized.
Two sp3 hybrid
Nucleophile: From the Greek meaning nucleus loving. A
molecule or ion that donates a pair of electrons to
another atom or ion to form a new covalent bond; a
The functional group of an aldehyde is a carbonyl group
bonded to an H atom and a carbon atom.
The functional group of a ketone is a carbonyl group
bonded to two carbon atoms.
Stability of Conjugated Dienes
From heats of hydrogenation, we can compare relative
stabilities of conjugated and unconjugated dienes.
In this chapter, we study five classes of organic
compounds, each related to carboxylic acids.
Under the structural formula of each is a drawing to help
you see its relationship t
BENZENE AND THE
The Pi System of Benzene
(a) The carbon framework with the six 2p orbitals.
(b) Overlap of the parallel 2p orbitals forms one torus
above the plane of the ring and another below it
This orbital represen
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)
spectroscopy: A spectroscopic technique that
gives us information about the number and types
of atoms in a molecule, for example, about the
Mass Spectrometry (MS)
An analytical technique for measuring the massto-charge ratio (m/z) of ions in the gas phase.
Mass spectrometry is our most valuable analytical tool
for determining accurate molecular masses.
Organometallic compound: A compound that
contains a carbon-metal bond.
In this chapter, we focus on organometallic
compounds of Mg, Li, and Cu.
These classes illustrate the usef
ENOLATE ANIONS AND
Formation of an Enolate Anion
Enolate anions are formed by deprotonation of an
-hydrogen of an aldehyde, ketone, or ester.
The majority of the negative charge in the hybrid is on
The functional group of a carboxylic acid is a
The general formula for an aliphatic carboxylic acid is
RCOOH; that for an aromatic c
Structure & Classification
Amines are classified as:
1, 2, or , 3 amines: are derivatives of ammonia in which
1, 2, or 3 hydrogens are replaced by alkyl or aryl groups.
Partial Final Exam
TCC, Virginia Beach Campus
Read each section carefully before starting the exam.
Please use blue or black ink to answer the question.
Click on all of the atoms that make up the largest coplanar unit in the molecule below.
Double bonds between carbons and other elements in the first roul-r of the periodic table can be modeled as a
combination of one sigma plus one pi bond. The pi bond re
Reaction progress -
aGt for a step in a reaction is equal
to the difference in energy between
the reactant and the transition state
for that step. The activation energy
is always positive.
Free Energy (keelfmol)
Reaction progress -
Use the reaction energy diagram above to answer the following questions.
Calculate the activation energy, M] t , for the step B to A. I" kcalfmol 1/
Calculate the overall energyr change. .50. for the process
1. A molecule of water contains hydrogen and oxygen in a 1:8 ratio by
mass. This is a statement of _.
a. the law of multiple proportions
*b. the law of constant composition
c. the law of conservation of mass
d. the law of conservation of energy
e. none of
1. Electrons in the 1s subshell are much closer to the nucleus in Ar
than in He due to the larger _ in Ar.
*a. nuclear charge
d. Hund's rule
e. azimuthal quantum number
2. Screening of the nuclear charge by core electrons
1. Objects can possess energy as _.
a. a only
b. b only
c. c only
d. a and c
*e. b and c
2. Which one of the following is an endothermic process?
a. ice melting
b. water freezing
c. boiling soup
d. Hydrochloric acid and barium hydroxide are mixed at 25 C:
1. Of the reactions below, which one is not a combination reaction?
a. C + O2
b. 2Mg + O2
c. 2N2 + 3H2
d. CaO + H2O
*e. 2CH4 + 4O2
2CO2 + 4H2O
2. Of the reactions below, which one is a decomposition reaction?
b. 2Mg + O2
1. The basis of the VSEPR model of molecular bonding is _.
a. regions of electron density on an atom will organize
themselves so as to maximize s-character
b. regions of electron density in the valence shell of an atom
will arrange themselves so as to max
1. Aqueous solutions of a compound did not form precipitates with Cl-, Br-,
I-, SO42-, CO32-, PO43-, OH-, or S2-. This highly water-soluble compound
produced the foul-smelling gas H2S when the solution was acidified. This
compound is _.
1. The wavelength of light emitted from a traffic light having a frequency of
5.75 x 1014 Hz is _.
a. 702 nm
b. 641 nm
c. 674 nm
*d. 522 nm
e. 583 nm
2. Of the following, _ radiation has the shortest wavelength.
1. Which of the following does not have eight valence electrons?
d. Bre. all of these have eight valence electrons.
2. Lattice energy is _.
*a. the energy required to convert a mole of ionic solid into its
constituent ions in the gas
CHM 112 Test 2 Study Guide
Note: This study guide is not a step-by-step guide to the test (sometimes they are). This is a guide to
what you are responsible for knowing. Often if key concepts do not appear on the first test, they will
appear on the final e