Science vs. pseudoscience, science vs. Common sense
o Common sense
Intuition, subjective, ancedotal
Opposites Attract Better safe than sorry
Objective, empirically tested
Types of behavioral research (basic, applied, evaluation)
Exam 1 Review
Know why psychology is considered a science
o The methods we use to study behavior is what makes psychology a
o The methods in psychology are rigorous and comparable to other
fields such as sociology, biology, etc
Exam 3 Review Exam 3: Wednesday November 5
1. Basic Issues in Experimental Design and Assignment
Understand why we do experimental research (hint, to get at cause and effect)
Experimental Design- Directly testing hypotheses to determine the caus
A. They do tell you whether 2 variables are related. But they do not tell you which
variable influences which. They may hint or suggest that one variable influences another,
but they are never proof of causality. That is, they are ne
I. Overview: Why understand research methods?
A. Understanding research is critical to understanding psychology
B. Thinking like a researcher is a marketable skill
C. Understanding research is crucial for being an intelligent consumer
The experiment is one of several research methods. It is valuable source of information
because it is the only method that allows us to make causal statements: statements
about what makes something happen; statements about what factor influence
Importance of Research
Why Are Research Methods Important?
Science, at a basic level attempts to answer questions (such as "why are we aggressive)
through careful observation and collection of data. These answers can then (at a more
complex or higher leve
THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
How do we find scientific truth? The scientific method is NOT perfect, but it is the best
method available today.
To use the scientific method, all topics of study must have the following criteria:
1) must be testable (e.g., can you
types of correlational methods
Useful for describing behavior and for suggesting causal hypotheses that could be tested
1. Scientific observation should be
a. Objective: "just the facts"
take special care to avoid anthropom
I. Psychology is the science of human behavior because we want to:
A.To get facts rather than opinions.
B. To get good information so we help-rather than hurt-people. Wouldn't it be
nice if everyone in the health field used the sam
Evidence of Validity Based on a Tests Relationships with External Criteria (Criterion-Related Validity)
What is Criterion-Related Validity?
o Criterion-Related Validity: evidence that test scores correlate with/predict independent
Is There a Right or Wrong Way to Use Psychological Tests?
What are Ethics?
Ethics: issues or practices that influence the decision-making process in
terms of doing the right thing
Ethical Standards: a set of professional practice guidelines or codes
What are Psychological Tests?
Why is Psychological Testing Important?
Almost everyone takes and/or is affected by them
MMPI-2 (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory)
NEO PI-R ( NEO Personality Inventory)
Psychological Testing Today
o Thousands of tests available from hundreds of publishers
o Used in education, business, and counseling
o This is a big business today
This makes it difficult to sort out which purpose the test is intended to be used for;
o Purpose to describe characteristics or behaviors of a specific population
o Not testing hypothesis
o Types of Descriptive research
Most common type of descriptive design
Attitudes, lifestyles, b
o Researchers have no way of knowing the probability that a particular case will be chosen from
the sample (Major concern in descriptive research)
Researcher takes steps to make sure that certain kinds of participa