(bd) State Court Systems There is a separate Court system in each state. The general structure of the state court system looks like: Most States Supreme Court (court of last resort) Intermediate Appellate Court Superior Courts Circuit Courts (civil a
I. Are Governors Important in the national scene? - until recently governors played a very limited role at the national level. - today governors are more influential in national policy - in particular they are important in nominating presidents. Gove
Political Science 220
Readings you are responsible for:
Dye and MacManus- Chapter One,
Trounstine, Jessica. All Politics is Local: The Reemergence of the Study of City
Tarr, G. Alan- Understanding State Constitutions. Temple L
What is politics?
Politics: the management of conflict
Why is it important?
1. Local level: source of many political events
2. What state and local government studies is a good way to experiment with
3. Studying state and local can
9.1 Politics and the Judicial Process
Judicial style of decision-making
Courts limit decisions on specific cases.
Very rare to enact a comprehensive policy like legislature does with laws.
o Courts rarely initiate p
What is adequate yearly progress?
Assessment at end of year to see if schools were doing better than the year before.
Bureaucracies will bargain with on another- beauracracies are competitive, trying to
have the most power
National vs. State constitutions
1. States include specific policy initiatives (ex. Every student in NJ has right to good
public education) Federal is much more general.
2. States are much longer
3. Separation of powers in state, give more power to legisl
Taxes & Spending
Taxes are payments people are required to pay to local, state and national
Taxes are used to pay for services provided by government such as
schools, defense, police, etc.
Taxes & Constitution
Article 1, Section 8
NOVEMBER 11, 2013 EDUCATION POLICY CONT
Equalization of school funding
-people have gone to court in states where the state constitution guarantees an
equal right to an education
-used the specific language of states constitution in order to make the lega
NOVEMBER 1, 2013 TAXES
Taxes dont get a lot of attention because it involves math (who pays for government)-there
are active debates on who gets what and who pays (debates are generally not as public)
Taxes are complicated
Who pays what aka Tax Incidence
NOVEMBER 13, 2013 EDUCATION POLICY CONT
-a lot of the testing is a result of the no child left behind law:
Required that schools used standardized testing to measure the progress of
their students and has provisions for students shift
NOVEMBER 4, 2013 TAXES CONT
State and local taxes
-each state has its own system and different mix of taxes
-the vast majority of states make use of the vast majority of taxes (income tax, sales tax,
and property tax) : Alaska has a special tax bc it gets
NOVEMBER 6, 2013 TAXES CONT.
Overall tax Incidence
Not only thing people care about when it comes to taxes
Most popular tax is the sells tax: bc there is no human involvement
Two least popular taxes are the ones with the least variation: 1-federal income
NOVEMBER 8, 2013 EDUCATION POLICY
Issue of School choice
In most places in the US Where you go to school is largely not your choice or your
parents choice (public school)
Placed based: matters where you live
In some larger cities, there is a larger compon
OCTOBER 28, 2013 LOCAL GOVERNMENT
Local government is different from state government and federal government
Local government in most places is more accessible
-if you have something that you want to bring to the mayor or council of
Morgantown, you can do
OCTOBER 30, 2013 LOCAL GOVERNEMENTS- FOUR STRUCTURE
There are 4 major structures that cities use for their local government
Each has their advantages and disadvantages
Some are suited for small towns, some are suited for big citifies, and there are trade
OCTOBER 23, 2013-THE JUDICIARY
There are 5 major ways that judges are chosen
There are variations among these
Some states combine 1 or 2 different ones, some states use more than one
Two most frequently used methods is:
1) Partisan Election: they choose j
Does bureaucracy affect our daily lives? The answer is yes, everything around is controlled by one agency or another.
For example, the roads we drive on are maintained by the government, along with the food we eat, the clothes we w