GHGs over the Past Millennium
Exponential increase over
the past 1000 years in CO2,
CH4, and N2O is clear
CO2 concentrations have
increased by about 35%
since preindustrial times
Methane concentrations
Source: IPCC report
have more than doubled
Table 1.1. Series of activities related to the various focus areas of LUCC L
Activities Activities Activities
1. Understanding landuse decisions 1. Landcover change hotspots 1. Comparison of past and current
2. From process to pattern: and critical r
Lecture 3: Applications of Basic Equations
Pressure C
P
Coordinates:
di t Advantage
Ad t
andd Disadvantage
Di d t
Momentum Equation Balanced Flows
Thermod namic & Momentum
Thermodynamic
Moment m Eq.s
Eq s Thermal Wind Balance
Continuity Equation Surface P
Outline
1. Review
Momentum equation(s)
Geopotential and atmospheric thickness
Transformation of vertical coordinates
2. Material Derivative
Lagrangian and Eulerian reference frames
Material (total, substantive) derivative
Mathematical tools needed for Hom
Couple of Links you should know
about
http:/www.lib.umich.edu/ejournals/
Library electronic journals
http:/portal.isiknowledge.com/portal.c
gi?Init=Yes&SID=4Ajed7dbJbeGB3KcpBh
Web o Science
Material from Chapter 6
Quasigeostrophic theory
Quasigeos
Rest of Course
Wrap up quasigeostrophic theory (Chapter 6)
Potential vorticity
Vertical velocity
Will NOT do Q vectors
We will have a lecture on the Eckman layer (Chapter 5)
Boundary layer, mix friction with rotation
We will have a lecture on Kelv
Outline
Review
Coriolis Force
Vertical structure and vertical coordinate
Should be review. So we are going fast.
You have the power to slow us down.
Our momentum equation
2
du
1
a
r
2
p (u) g 0
2
dt
(a z ) r
+ other forces
Now using the texts conventi
Lecture 4: Circulation and Vorticity
Circulation
Bjerknes
j
Circulation Theorem
Vorticity
Potential Vorticity
y
Conservation of Potential Vorticity
ESS227
Prof. JinYi Yu
Measurement of Rotation
Circulation and vorticity are the two primary
measures of r
Lecture 5: Waves in Atmosphere
Perturbation Method
Properties of Wave
Shallow Water Gravity Waves
Rossby Waves
ESS227
Prof. JinYi Yu
Perturbation Method
With this method, all filed variables are separated into
two parts: (a) a basic state part and (b) a
Material from Chapter 4
Vorticity, Vorticity, Vorticity
Relative and planetary vorticity
Midlatitude disturbances
Vorticity, divergence, in 3D
Two important definitions
barotropic density depends only on
pressure. And by the ideal gas equation,
sur
Outline
1. Review: Material Derivative
2. Conservation of Mass and Scale
analysis
Lagrangian and Eulerian derivations of
continuity equation
Scale analysis of the momentum equations
Scale analysis of the continuity equation
Material Derivative
Calculate t
A Diversion
Santa Ana Winds
QuasiGeostrophic
Derive a system of equations that is close
to geostrophic and hydrostatic balance,
but includes the effects of ageostrophic
wind
Comes from scale analysis of equations of
motion in pressure coordinates
Sca
QuasiGeostrophic
Derive a system of equations that is close
to geostrophic and hydrostatic balance,
but includes the effects of ageostrophic
wind
Comes from scale analysis of equations of
motion in pressure coordinates
Scale analysis = make assumption
Vorticity, Vorticity, Vorticity
Two important definitions
barotropic density depends only on
pressure. And by the ideal gas equation,
surfaces of constant pressure, are
surfaces of constant density, are surfaces
of constant temperature.
baroclinic densi
Table 1.1. Series of activities related to the various focus areas of LUCC L
Activities Activities Activities
1. Understanding landuse decisions 1. Landcover change hotspots 1. Comparison of past and current
2. From process to pattern: and critical r
Vol 449  13 September 2007  doi:10.1038/nature06060
LETTERS
Positive feedbacks promote powerlaw clustering
of Kalahari vegetation
Todd M. Scanlon1, Kelly K. Caylor2, Simon A. Levin3 & Ignacio RodriguezIturbe4
The concept of localscale interactions dr
FOR76
Landscape Ecology and
Ecosystems Management
Thomas G. Barnes, Extension Wildlife Specialist
T
co
rri
d
or
his publication introduces the concepts and
principles of landscape ecology for managing
wildlife and other natural resources. It is intended
Evaporation Examples
(1) Energy Balance Method
On 24 January 2013, in the Upper Brushy Creek watershed, the net radiation averaged over the day
from the National Land Data Assimilation System, is 52 W/m2. The average air temperature through the
day is 17C
Irrigation and Drainage Systems (2005) 19: 223249
C
Springer 2005
Review on estimation of evapotranspiration
from remote sensing data: From empirical
to numerical modeling approaches
DOMINIQUE COURAULT, BERNARD SEGUIN & ALBERT OLIOSO
Institut National de
What is a landscape?
A mosaic of patches that differ in
ecologically important properties.
The size, shape, and distribution of those
patches can vary substantially.
These patches interact and feed back to
one another.
Patches
Landscape Elements
Patch
The Amazon Basin in Transition
It highlights the transition of Amazon forests
from being a carbon sink to carbon source
Centre for Oceans, Rivers, Atmosphere and Land Sciences
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
1986
Amazon Scenarios
Source: D. Neps
AE459
Step by Step Calculation of the PenmanMonteith
Evapotranspiration (FAO56 Method)1
Lincoln Zotarelli, Michael D. Dukes, Consuelo C. Romero, Kati W. Migliaccio, and Kelly T.
Morgan2
Introduction
The term evapotranspiration (ET) is commonly used to
d
What is remote sensing?
= Any data collected from a distance
P
l
a
t
f
o
r
m
s
I
n
s
t
r
u
m
e
n
t
s
Aircraft
Camera /film or digital
Satellites
Images from: Air Images: www.aerialphotography.com/ NASA /www.NASA.gov
Psssive scanners
Active sensors
What is
Factors Influencing Evaporation
Energy supply for vaporization
(latent heat)
Rn
Net radiation
Solar radiation
Transport of vapor away from
evaporative surface
Wind velocity over surface
Specific humidity gradient above
surface
Vegetated surfaces
Suppl
Centre for Oceans, Rivers, Atmosphere and Land Sciences (CORAL)
Subject: Land System Studies (CL60028)
Spring MidSemester Examination (20082009)
Total Marks: 30
A. Answer Any Five (2Marks Each)
Total Duration: 2 Hours
10 Marks
1. Drivers of Land Use/ L
Evapotranspiration
1
The Hydrologic Cycle
Evaporation
 Physical process, liquid water> vapor in the air
 Occurs when unsaturated air comes in contact with a moist surface
 Provides the Atmospheric Moisture that returns to the surface as Rain or Snow

Journal of Geographical Sciences 15, 3 (2005) 305328 ISSN: 1009637X www.geog.cn
Land use change and its corresponding
ecological responses: a review
S H A O Jingan 1'2, N I Jiupai l'2, W E I C h a o f u 1'2, X I E Deti 1,2
(1. College of Resource and En
light rain
heavy rain
intermittent light rain
2. Precipitation characteristics (intensity and
duration)
1. Type and growth stage of the vegetation
The magnitude of interception and storage is determined by
1 square centimeter on a leaf or
needle has 1000
Hydrology and
Earth System
Sciences
Open Access
Ocean Science
Open Access
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 13311363, 2013
www.hydrolearthsystsci.net/17/1331/2013/
doi:10.5194/hess1713312013
Author(s) 2013. CC Attribution 3.0 License.
cess
Model Develo