Lecture #16, The humoral immune response
Protection can be transferred with serum or fluids of the body humoral immunity.
Antibodies produced by B cells cause the destruction of extracellular microorganisms
Fab fragments (Fragment anti
Lecture #2, Innate Immunity
The first lines of defense
The innate immune system provides an initial discrimination
between self and non-self.
A set of inborn, non-adaptive defense mechanisms.
- always present
- do not rely on the clonal expansion of ant
Lecture #23, Immune Defense and Vaccination
Nonspecific mechanisms (Innate Immunity)
Specific mechanisms (Adapted Immunity)
-Primary immune response: encounter a pathogen for the first time
(several days are required for the clonal expansion and different
Lecture #22, Transplantation
The transplantation of tissue to replace diseased organs is now a medical therapy.
T cell responses to the highly polymorphic MHC molecules trigger a response against
the grafted organ
Types of transplantation
Lecture #19 Hypersensi1vity and Allergy
The Dark Side of the Immune System
Sensitivity: Clinical definition of immunity
Hypersensitivity: Undesirable (damaging,
discomfort-producing and sometimes fatal)
Lecture #7, B cell receptors
The antigen-recognition molecules of B cells are
the immunoglobulins (Ig).
In the form of immunoglobulins (Ig) on B cell: B
lymphocytes sense the presence of antigens in
Membrane-bound Ig on the B cell surfa
Lecture #5 Induced innate responses to infection
Discovery of Interferons
Isaacs and Lindenmann
Did an experiment using chicken cell cultures
Found a substance that interfered with viral
replication and was therefore named
Nagano and Koji
Lecture #21, Autoimmunity
Responses to self antigens (autoantigens) is called autoimmunity, which can lead to
autoimmune diseases tissue damage.
The mechanisms of the immune system to discriminate self from non-self:
Failure of self-tolerance
Lecture #18, The Mucosal Immune System
The lymphoid organs associated with:
the intestine, respiratory tract, urogenital tract, oral cavity, pharynx, the glands
associated with these tissues (such as the salivary glands and lachrymal gland)
The mucosal im
Lecture #14, T cell mediated immunity
Thymus-dependent (T) cells
in the thymus
Exit to periphery
Naive T cells
Proliferate and differentiate
Effector T cells
Cytotoxic T (CD8+) cells
Helper T (CD4+) cells
Lecture #13, B/T cell Ac1va1on
General principles of signal transduction
Cell surface (transmembrane) receptors convert extracellular signals into
intracellular biochemical events.
A common theme: Ligand binding to the receptor results in the activa
Lecture #6, Natural Killer (NK) cells and
other innate immune cells
NK: 5-25% of the lymphocytes in the blood
NK Cells: Historical Notes
Spontaneous killing of leukemic cells by
normal peripheral blood lymphocytes
Lecture #4: Complement
The complement system: a large number of different plasma proteins that interact
with one another both to opsonize pathogens and to induce inflammatory response.
It represents lytic activity of fresh serum.
Its lytic a
Lecture #20 Hypersensi1vity II, III, IV
Type I IgE mediated (Immediate, Allergy Atopy)
Type II An*body (IgG) mediated (Cell
receptor- or matrix associated an*gen)
Type III Immune complex (IgG) mediated
Induced responses of innate immunity
(Leukocyte migration and inflammation)
Inflammation is a process by which the bodys immune cells and chemicals protect
us from infection.
The initial signs of inflammation, redness, heat, swelling and pain
CD40L/CD154 on T
CD40 on B
TRAF : TNF receptor-associated factor
RIP : receptor interacting protein
AP-1 : activating protein-1
NF-B : nuclear factor kappa B
IB : inhibitor of NF-B
Other activating receptors
Lecture #15, T cell mediated immunity, II
Thymus-dependent (T) cells
Types of Eector T cells
CD8 T cell dierenAates into CD8 cytotoxic T or cytotoxic lymphocyte (CTL):
kill target cells
CD4 T cell dieren
Lecture #23 Transplantation
1. Name types of transplantation.
a. Transfusion: blood and blood-derived products
b. Organ/tissue: solid organs, tissues
c. Bone Marrow: hematopoietic stem cells
2. What is allogeneic graft? What is xenograft?
a. Tissue is fro
Lecture #24 Infectious diseases
1. What types of cells are directly involved in adaptive immunity?
a. T cells are directly involved in the adaptive immune response
2. Memory immune responses are usually developed from which arm of immunity
(innate or adap
Lecture #22 Autoimmunity
1. What is autoimmunity?
a. Autoimmunity is response to self antigens which can lead to autoimmune disease
and tissue damage
2. What are the types of tolerance for the immune system to discriminate self from
3. What i
Lecture #21 Hypersensitivity II, III, IV
1. Type II and III Hypersensitivity are mediated by which Ig?
2. What is Myasthenia Gravis? These patients produce what kind of antibody and
antibody against what specific antigen?
a. A progressive weakness
Lecture #20 Hypersensitivity and Allergy
1. What is hypersensitivity?
a. Undesirable reactions produced by a normal immune system. They may be
2. Type of hypersensitivity?
a. Type 1: IgE mediated (immediate, allergy atopy)
b. Type 2: Antibody
Lecture #02 Innate Immunity
1. Understand the antimicrobial proteins that are produced by epithelial cells and
2. What is lysozyme?
3. What is defensin?
4. How can defensin kill microbes?
5. What is paneth cell?
6. What is PAMP? Examples of PA
Lecture #4 Complement
1. Where can we find complements?
2. What are the pathways that activate complements?
3. C4, C2, and C3 are cleaved into what fragments?
4. What is the C3 convertase from the classical and lectin pathways?
5. How to initiate the clas
BIOL561 Study Guide
Lecture #01 Basic Concept
1. What is PBMC?
2. How can we obtain PBMCs from blood?
3. What are white blood cells or leukocytes?
4. What is PMN (polymorphonuclear leukocytes)?
5. What cells are PMN?
6. What immune cells contain granules?
Lecture #5 Induced innate response to infection
What is the function of interferon?
Examples of type I and type II interferons.
Why interferons can control viral infection? (Figure 3.29)
Which type of dendritic cells (DCs) can make large
Lecture #3 Leukocyte migration and inflammation
What are the signs of acute inflammation?
What cytokines do activated macrophages produce?
Which cytokines produced by activated macrophages are involved in fever elevation?
Which cytokine produc
Lecture #6 NK and other innate immune cells
What is NK cell?
Name common surface markers for identifying human NK cell population?
Flow cytometry profiling for NK cell populations.
Name cytokines that can activate NK cells?