Using pea plants, Mendel revealed the fundamental
principles of transmission genetics. Work by others
showed that genes are on chromosomes, and that
mutant strains can be used to map genes
The discovery that DNA encodes genetic
- Many traits exhibit a pattern of inheritance that is
not biparental, demonstrating what is called
Extranuclear inheritance is often due to the
expression of genetic information contained in
mitochondria or ch
Sexual reproduction, which greatly enhances
genetic variation within species, requires
mechanisms that result in sexual differentiation.
A wide variety of genetic mechanisms have evolved
in organisms leading to sexual dimorphism.
Most often, specific gene
Regulation of Gene
Expression in Prokaryotes
Model of the trp RNA7
312,}‘v‘ieili'iﬁiif E. c i3? 3
- In bacteria, regulation of gene expression is often 0 Genes that encode enzymes with related functions
linked to th
and Multifaetorial Traits
- Quantitative inheritance results in a range of
measurable phenotypes for a polygenic trait.
- Not all polygenic traits show continuous variation.
0 Quantitative traits can be explained in Mendelian
- Allele frequencies in population gene pools can
vary in space and time.
- The relationship between allele frequencies and
genotype frequencies in an ideal population is
described by the HardyeWeinberg law.
- Natural selection is a major force driving al
A Chroma [in ber viewed using
0 Genetic information in viruses, bacteria,
mitochondria, and chloroplasts is most often
contained in a short, circular DNA molecule,
- Cancer is a group of genetic diseases affecting
fundamental aspects of cellular function, including
DNA repair, the cell cycle, apoptosis, differentiation,
and cellcell contact.
- Most cancer-causing mutations occur in somatic
cells; only about
Moiecoiar compiex formed between TAT/A box
binding protein (TSP), transcription factors TFHA
and THIS, and TATA box DNA during! the ii'iitiation
I Eukaryotic gene regulation is very different from
prokaryotic gene regulation.
0 Genetic continuity between cells and between
organisms of sexually reproducing species is
maintained through the processes of mitosis and
0 Diploid eukaryotic cells contain their genetic
information in pairs of homologous chromosom
Cryogenicai‘iy preserved seeds of rare crop
varieties at the US. Department of Agriculture
National Seed Storage Laboratory.
- Species require genetic diversity for long-term - Endangered populations that recover in size may