A hormone is a _ and the target cell is _.
protein that stimulates other cells; the source of hormone secretions
regulatory molecule that controls secretions of other cells; a cell that synthesizes hormones
molecule that has a metabolic effect on another
Final exam AP1 summary review.
The review doesnt match word to word with the exam, its a
study Aids to help you expand your learning and knowledge of
Anatomy & Physiology.
1a). Know the general purpose of negative feedbackPay
special attention to homeosta
Right atroventricular valve:
right atrium and r. ventricle.
Prevents back flow into r-atrium
Chordae tendineae attach to cusps on ventricular side (originate from papillary muscles) prevent cusps
into r-atrium. During ventricle
Glycogenesis study tips
1. Glycogenesis: is the formation of glycogen from glucose. storage of glucose in the
form of glycogen.
2. Glycogenolysis,: break-down of glycogen (stored form) to release glucose,
glycogenolysis: glycogen stored in the live
Factors Increasing Central Venous Pressure
A decrease in cardiac output either due to decreased heart rate (ventricular failure) results in
blood backing up into the venous circulation (increased venous volume) as less blood is pumped
into the arterial ci
Middle artery: supplies each adrenal gland.
Middle suprarenal vein: drains each adrenal gland.
Renal artery: supplies each kidney.
Renal vein: drains each kidney.
Gonadal artery: supplies each gonad.(testes in males and
ovaries in females.)
Small intestine: Absorption
-Villi increase surface area for absorption
-most absorbed before it reaches the organs distal end
begins in mouth
ends small intestine
resulting Monosaccharides :
Hepatopancreatic ampulla (ampulla of vater): loc. where pancreatic & bile duct empty
Kupffer cells: macrophage attached to inner lining (endothelium) of liver sinusoids.
remove bacteria form blood by phagocytosis
Lung capacity and volume:
Lung volumes are directly measured
Lung capacities are inferred from lung volumes.
anatomic dead space: air remaining in the trachea, bronchi, bronchioles.
- conducting airway volume Includes air in the conducting respir
Humoral response (or antibody-mediated response)
B cells that recognize antigens or pathogens circulating in lymph or blood
Antigens bind to B cells.
Interleukins or helper T cells costimulate B cells. In most cases, both an antigen and a costimulator ar
The hydrostatic pressure gradient
The hydrostatic pressure gradient is the difference between the hydrostatic pressure of fluid inside the capillary and outside the
capillary, determined by the blood pressure. Where hydrostatic pressure is higher, water t
Pathway of air into lungs
Fresh air enters into the body through the mouth and nostrils. Air entering
the nasal cavity is moistened and warmed by the mucus membranes; cilia
remove small particles and sweep them toward the pharynx. Air flows into
Holes anatomy chapter 18 study guide
adiponectin; protein hormone produced in adipose cells /secreted into blood that mediates response to
insulin. regulates fatty acid catabolism. also an anti-inflammatory. increase BMI.
Anabolism; is the synthesis part
Swallowing can be divided into three stages:
Voluntary stage where saliva is mixed with chewed food
Swallowing begins and the swallowing reflex is triggered
Peristalsis transports food in the esophagus to the stomach
The palate an
adaptive immunity: the slower-acting defenses in the body that involve specific recognition of a specific
microbe once it has moved past the body's nonspecific defenses
Additive effects: two hormones work together for a GREATER effect. can result in syner
-requires no energy
concentration to low
fat soluble nutrients
oxygen, N , co2, alcohols
Water soluble nutrients
carbohydrates, amino acids, v
Trace the pathway of food once it enters into your mouth until it exits through the anus.
2. Name and describe the 5 different processes of the digestive system.
3. Explain where digestion of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids occur(s) and what
calculating z score:
standard score (Z) = X- M/ Q
68-95-99.7 rule (empirical rule): for a normal distribution almost all values lie within 3
standard deviations of the mean.
Apx. 68% of the values lie within 1 standard deviation of the mean (or between t
Small Intestine Enzymes
Cholecystokinin Stimulates digestion of proteins and fats
Secretin Controls secretion of duodenum and osmoregulation
Sucrase Converts sucrose to disaccharides and monosaccharides
Maltase Converts maltose to glucose
Chapter 18: Nutrition and Metabolism
Anabolism; is the synthesis part of metabolism. Creation of large molecules from smaller with the use of
Appetite is the drive that compels us to seek food.
adiponectin; protein hormone produced in a
Blood pressure regulation/ change
Cardiac output altered by changing stroke volume or heart rate.
Resistance to blood flow
-vasodilation or vasoconstriction
-changes in blood viscosity
-length of the blood vessels (weight gain/loss)
Mechanisms regulate bl
CH 13 endocrine
1. What are the differences between the endocrine and nervous system?
Hormones: chemical messeners that enter the blood stream to get to target tissue
Distance: far from site of release - binds to receptors on target cells