It is the process in which a pre-cast R.C.C box or a rigid box
is pushed into the soil with the help of hydraulic jacks
It is non-intrusive method beneath the existing surface.
It is more often used when a subway or a aqueduct or a
Diaphragm walls are underground structural elements commonly
used for retention systems and permanent foundation walls.
Diaphragm walls provide a water tight barrier and are
constructed with a minimum back slope subsidence.
Excavations and other engineering constructions in the
ground are central to many civil and mining projects.
Ground reinforcement includes among other methods, the
techniques of ground anchoring, cable bolting and rock boltin
The term caisson has been derived from the French
word CAISSEE, meaning BOX.
It can be round or rectangle in plan.
It is commonly used where foundation under water is
It can sunk from surface of either land or water t
ABOUT THE TECHNIQUE
It is generally referred as Micro tunneling
Pipes are pushed through the ground behind the shield
using powerful jacks.
Simultaneously excavation takes place within the shield.
This process is continued until the pipeline
Grouting is a process of ground improvement attained by
injecting fluid like
material into subsurface soil or rock.
Grouting is the injection specially formulated cement of stable
or liquid into pores, fissures or voids, or t
Piling is a type of Foundation which is defined as a column
supported type of foundation, may be cast in-situ or pre-cast.
It may be made of Timber, Concrete, Steel, or combination of
any of them.
Pile foundation is adopted when t
A cofferdam is a temporary structure designed to
keep water and/or soil out of the excavation in which a
bridge pier or other structure is built.
When construction must take place below the water
level, a cofferdam is built