Philosophy, Paper 2
Have you ever tried to learn how to do Calculus without a teacher to teach you or
a book to guide you? Seems nearly impossible to try and learn something completely
new when you have no resources to lea
John Stuart Mill
Utilitarianism a moral theory based on the principle that actions are right in
proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the
reverse of happiness
Happiness pleasure and the absence of pain
Lockes three goals:
1. To discover where our ideas come from
2. To ascertain what it means to have these ideas and what an idea essentially is
3. To examine issues of faith and opinion to determine how we should process
True life simple pleasures, good diet, good health, prudent morality, and good friends
Philosophy helps us recognize what has been and have no fear of what will be.
The brain can adjust to pain.
Meaning of Life
Pleasure right de
Cosmos polis one world state
Logos based on organization, total reason, perfect logic
Ataraxia rest; entire peace
What would Socrates do?
- Socrates was the ideal member of society.
1. Dedication to Duty
Do your tasks carefully and avoid
The Kalam Argument
1. Whatever begins to exist has a cause.
Principle of Sufficient Reason all necessary reason is present and sufficient
Positive Fact something that makes a factual claim about the universe
Everything that exists has a cause and
Logic use of a series of statements using principles of reasoning to lead to a truth
1. All humans have blood.
2. Socrates is human.
3. Socrates has blood.
Motion: objects are moved or objects move themselves
Biology: analysis of data
Ab surd that which cannot be factored into an equation or made rational
(reasonable); opposite of Stoics logos, for there is no divine reason
Absurdity and Suicide
Suicide is confessing that life is too much to handle
Reductio ad absurdum reducing to absurdity assuming the opposite of what
wanted to be proved, then showing that the assumption ends in a contradiction
Greatest Imaginable Being
The being greater than which nothing can be conceived
1. For a being t
Sufficient (Necessary) Definition all pieces included in a definition are necessary
and all necessary pieces of a definition of included
Goal: Bring us back to virtue
Lex talionis effort to produce equality using a mixture of retribution a
Essay Concerning Human Understanding: Book 4, Chapter 19
1. Love of Truth necessary.
2. A forwardness to dictate anothers beliefs, from whence.
3. Force of enthusiasm, in which reason is taken away.
4. Reason and revelation.
5. Rise of enthusiasm.
Plato argues that only morality survives, so we must work together to achieve morality
in order for us to survive.
Justice doing what you want, when you want, how you want, why you want
The lion represents the love of comba
The Meaning of Life
Everyone has a limited time.
1. What do you do with the time you have?
What kind of value can guide your decision?
2. How do you measure the meaning of life?
3. What does it mean to be (good) human?
Ideals, values, etc.
We never knew the artist capable of making a watch (universe) or we do not
know how the work was accomplished.
Just because we dont know who the artist might be doesnt follow that we cannot
know there is one.
Not only is the univers
Casuistry a principle that judgments should only be made on a case-by-case basis
We judge to keep order of societal beliefs.
Morality is Relative
Humans are plastic; we conform.
Human behavior can be represented by the standard devi
The Five Ways
The First Way: The Argument From Change
Our senses prove that some things are in motion.
Things move when potential motion becomes actual motion.
Only an actual motion can convert a potential motion into an act
Empiricist one who lives by reasoning and sense perceptions
Ought is not reasonable or empirical.
Feelings trigger what we ought and ought not to do.
Universal and impossible to deny
1. God is good.
2. God in omni (potent, wise, etc.)
3. Evil exists.
All three cannot be true at the same time.
God is good and omni.
If God is good, then God should want to prevent evil (or eliminate evil).
If God is
Intro to Philosophy
January 11, 2014
How Do You Believe?
If the President of the United States told you to jump off a bridge without a
bungee cord, would you? What if the pastor of your church told you to do the
same? What if you
Berkeley believes that it is common sense to believe in the real existence of
objects in your experience; however, he believes that the real existence of objects is
dependent of a mind perceiving them.
Materialism the belief in th
Attention-getter: Example from Defense of Argument
Thesis: Even though individuals believe that they are free to do want, Baron d'Holbach
believes the world is a grand machine because everything happens for a reason.
Definition: Determinism i
Science Regularities Scientific experiments
Intuition sense of self
Reasoning use of math, logic
Perceptions use of the senses
How can you know cause?
You must first assume that causation exists.
1. Temporal Priority
What makes a life worth living?
Love brings joy and cures loneliness
Knowledge understanding the hearts of men, wishing to alleviate evil
Pity compassion; you dont know what others are going through, but pity can help you
lend a h
Had the best studies of physics, philosophy, etc.
Light of Nature created by revelation, tested by reason
The Fourth Way:
A v ~A (A. or not. A.)
A being is or is not, it cannot be both.
A necessary being m
Denial of 1st Cause Denial of Cause
Life is a series of causes.
Edwards says that a cause many not be the first cause, but it is still a cause.
Therefore, the concept of infinity is applicable.
Infinite Series (Conservation of Matter)
What does it mean to be God?
Not bound by physical law
Should be obeyed
Merciful and just
Moral best of all possible worlds
Nature of interpretation of reality
An individual interpretation has to fit in with the general interpretation in order to
have equal value of all interpretations.
Knowledge is indubitable - un-doubtable
Philosophy the love of wisdom that results from a pursuit of knowledge of the most
important parts of reality
Ten Commandments of Philosophy
Allow the spirit of Wonder to flourish in your heart.
Doubt every claim you enc
Life, liberty, and the pursuit of wealth. John Locke
Philosophy bakes no bread. Bertrand Russel
Goal: Search for truth.
How do we know the truth?
Knowledge is vital to fit to reality.
Sources for Knowledge
1. If you are part of a group and participate in its activities, the groups psychology
will affect you and have an impact on your soul.
2. We can guide these impacts by choosing what situations we want to be involved