74. Which of the following would be considered employee involvement?
A. A legally mandated union-management health and safety committee.
B. A supervisor casually asking an employee whether the company should adopt a new type of
C. A compute
DATE: MONDAY, OCTOBER 6
Please do bring:
TIME: 7:00-8:30 PM
LOCATION: 101 DEBARTOLO HALL
SCOPE: CHAPTERS 1-4, 6-10
TYPE: 60 TRUE/FALSE, MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
2 OLD EXAMS POSTED ON SAKAI, plus study tips (Class 17 under the
60. The creative potential of a person tends to increase with his or her:
A. ability to synthesize information.
B. ability to analyze ideas.
C. ability to apply ideas.
D. ability to be persistent.
E. All of these statements are correct.
61. Which of these
54. Divergent thinking increases the level of:
A. programmed decision making.
C. bounded rationality.
D. escalation of commitment.
E. Divergent thinking improves none of these decision processes.
55. Which of the following occurs during the
86. Because sodomy is defined to include all same-sex sexual
behavior, the majority of liter- ature discussing the history of
sodomy, especially in the military, tend to focus on gay and lesbian peoples.
When possible, I include discussions about
539 U.S. 558 (2003). The Court granted certiorari to
resolve three questions, one of which was to consider
[w]hether Petitioners criminal convictions for adult consensual
sexual intimacy in the home violate their vital interests in
liberty and privacy
90. JOHN E. BOSWELL, CHRISTIANITY, SOCIAL
TOLERANCE, AND HOMOSEXUALITY: GAY PEOPLE
IN WESTERN EUROPE FROM THE BEGINNING OF
THE CHRISTIAN ERA TO THE 14TH CEN- TURY
(1982); see, e.g., FONE, supra note 12, at 17-71 (discussing
homosexuality in Ancient Greece
Id. at 703.
110. Carr, supra note 3, at 19. One courts observation directly
conflicts with deference to the military.
It held over three
We are not prepared to say that the [government] could not
reasonably find appellants homosexual adv
Lawrence v. Texas, 539 U.S. 558, 568 (2003). This dictum
could ultimately hurt the gay and lesbian struggle for equality
down the road as it could preclude attempts to gain strict scrutiny status. However, though this statement may be factually
See generally Adler, supra note 71. Professor Adler notes
many remaining areas where Lawrence either has been
distinguished (e.g., adoption, military law, and Romeo & Juliet
ex- ceptions to statutory rape) or can be distinguished (e.g., the
right to m
Accordingly, one of the main areas upon which gay and lesbian
lawyers concentrated their efforts was the sodomy laws of the
states. Many, not directly involved in the struggle of gays and lesbians
for equality, have not always understood why gay and lesbi
94. One reason why the problem identification stage is imperfect is that various stakeholders try to
"frame" the decision maker's view of the situation.
95. Our mental models of the world can prevent us from recognizing emerging problems in the
For more contemporary consideration, see McClellan,
supra note 23, and Chamallas,
supra note 23.
CHIN & PETERSON, supra note 161.
165. Id. The study notes that [b]lack plaintiffs won somewhat less
often than white: 40% as opposed to 46%
Article 125. See Anti-Hypocrisy Act of 2003, H.R. 2676, 108th
Cong. 2003 (last action executive comment requested from the
Dept. of Defense on Aug. 15,
2003) (To amend title 10, United States Code, to provide that
consensual sexual activity be- tween adul
Background to the Constitutional Right
The United States Supreme Court has never explicitly held
that the Bill of Rights or the Fourteenth Amendment
protects only those rights that the Constitution specifically
mentions by name.
conscription of these rules into its own code of justice.
important to understand the magnitude of the conduct
criminalized and struck down in Lawrence, and how it functions
in the military.
Part III will briefly outline military law and its proce
expressly state which test it used. The Court did place the liberty
interest in Lawrence within the Griswold line of cases. However,
the United States Supreme Court has not determined that all
liberty or privacy interests are fundamental rights. Id. at 20
410 U.S. at 152 (citing Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1,
8-9 (1968); Katz v. United
States, 389 U.S. 347, 350 (1967).
The Fifth Amendment states
No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise
infamous crime, unless on a present
61. See Roe, 410 U.S. 113, 152 (1973) (citing Stanley v. Georgia,
394 U.S. 557, 564 (1969). The First Amendment states that
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of
religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging
100.Bounded rationality adopts the main assumptions of the rational choice paradigm of decision
101.To choose the best solution, decision makers need clear organizational goals that do not conflict
with each other.
106.Representativeness heuristics is a natural tendency to pay less attention to whether something
resembles something else than on more precise statistics about its probability.
107.When decision makers tend not to evaluate various alternative
127.The incubation stage of creativity is more effective when the decision maker sets aside all other
activities and focuses attention on the issue or problem.
128.Incubation is the stage of creativity in which the problem is simmering at the b
113.Intuition is the main strategy to minimize escalation of commitment.
114.Intuition includes any emotional signals we experience regarding a situation.
115.Intuition is based on well-grounded mental models.
120.Post-decisional justification gives people an excessively optimistic evaluation of their decisions,
until they receive very clear and undeniable information to the contrary.
121.Escalation of commitment occurs when employees increase their
133.Creative people tend to have a high need for social approval.
134.Typically, creative people possess less knowledge and experience on the subject than experts in
135.Knowledge and experience can undermine creativity, b
140.Task significance and autonomy are important conditions for creativity in organizations.
141.Creativity tends to suffer during times of downsizing and corporate restructuring.
142.Creativity occurs by redefining the problem, not
147.A potentially useful creative practice is to list different dimensions of a system and the elements
of each dimension, then think through the potential commercial usefulness of each combination.
148.Employee involvement mainly refers to con