Chapter 24
Two-Way Tables and the
Chi-Square Test
We look at two-way tables to determine association of paired qualitative data. We
look at marginal distributions, conditional distributions and bar graphs. We also
discuss Simpsons Paradox, analogous to lu
Guide to SPSS Statistics
Chapter 1
Introduction to SPSS for
Windows
Power Point Font Color Key
Black - normal text
Blue - click on option or selection
Purple - key words
Folders on Your USB Flash Drive
Recommended folders (3) to create on your
USB Fla
Chapter 22
What Is a Test of Signicance?
If chance of observing an outcome sampled from a population with an assumed parameter is small, then choice of outcome is unlucky or, more likely, choice of population
parameter is wrong. Chance in this situation i
Chapter 3
What Do Samples Tell Us?
A parameter is a numerical quantity calculated from a population, whereas a statistic
is a numerical quantity calculated from a sample. The value of a statistic is used to
estimate an unknown parameter.
A statistic which
Chapter 17
Thinking about Chance
Random means although an individual outcome is unknown, there is still a regular
distribution of outcomes in a large number of repetitions. In particular, repeatedly
sampling, sample proportion of an outcome will approach
Chapter 14
Describing Relationships:
Scatterplots and Correlation
We look at scatterplots and linear correlation for paired (bivariate) quantitative data
sets. Scatterplot is graph of paired sampled data and linear correlation is a measure
of linearity of
Chapter 19
Simulation
It is often dicult to calculate probabilities from sampling distributions, probability
models of statistics such as the mean or SD. Simulation (previously briey discussed
in chapter 3), repeatedly drawing numbers from random numbers
90Chapter 15. Describing Relationships: Regression, Prediction, and Causation (ATTENDANCE 9)
Chapter 15
Describing Relationships:
Regression, Prediction, and
Causation
The least-squares (regression) line, drawn on a scatterplot, is used for prediction.
Ca
72
Chapter 13. Normal Distributions (ATTENDANCE 7)
Chapter 13
Normal Distributions
Histograms of sampled data often approximated (or idealized) by graphs of distributions. Area of a portion of a histogram often approximated by area of equivalent
portion o
64
Chapter 12. Describing Distributions with Numbers (ATTENDANCE 6)
Chapter 12
Describing Distributions with
Numbers
We look at important numerical summaries of distributions. Two measures of central
tendency are average (or, equivalently, mean) and media
Chapter 5
Experiments, Good and Bad
Point of both observational studies and designed experiments is to identify variable
or set of variables, called explanatory variables, which are thought to predict outcome
or response variable. Confounding between expl
Chapter 10
Graphs, Good and Bad
Data from categorical variable and quantitative variable are described in both a graphical and tabular form. Data for categorical variable organized into one of several
groups (categories) and can only be counted. Data from
Chapter 7
Data Ethics
Besides honesty, basic ethical requirements for any study of human subjects in U.S.
are approval by a review board, informed consent and condentiality of data. Main
purpose of institutional review board (IRB) is to be sure subjects i
Chapter 21
What is a Condence Interval?
Condence interval for proportion p from a binomial distribution is
p z
p(1 p)
.
n
Related to this, sampling distribution for p is approximately normal with a mean of
p(1p)
. Condence interval for mean is
p and a sta
Fundamental Statistics for the
Behavioral Sciences - Howell
Chapter 1
Introduction
Basic Terminology
Statistics - 3 key definitions
Mathematical/logical analysis of
information
Procedures and rules for data reduction
and rendering conclusions
Result o