1. The idea of genetics being related to began when the study of embryonic development
entailed the physical manipulation of embryos. The discovered that if one part of an
embryo was transplanted into another part of the embryo, it induced the
1. Protein structure has four different levels: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary.
Primary structure is the linear sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide chain. The
amino acids are connected by peptide bonds. There is an amino end
1. Amplification can be done either by within live bacterial cells (in vivo) or in a test tube
(in vitro). In vivo approach the investigator will have a sample of DNA or interest.
Fragments of this DNA will be inserted into a plasmid or bacteri
1. Transcription occurs on the DNA which is called a promoter. Protein synthesis is not
always on because we dont always need to be making every protein. To cope with this,
we have activators and repressors which bind to the operator. When the
1. In bacteria all genes are transcribed by the same RNA polymerase, in eukaryotes there are
three RNA polymerases. RNA is not processed in bacteria; it basically goes straight to
translation. In eukaryotes mRNA goes through splicing and adding