like this,is the fact,then the time occupiedby a given external
change, measured by many movements in the one case, must seem
much longer than it seems in the other case, when measured by a
singlemovement. . . .
Whatever exalts the vital activities and so
touching,without experiencingeither pleasureor pain.
5. The Quality and Quantity of Feelings.
The broadest qualitativedistinction of feelingsis into
pleasuresand pains. Both, pleasuresand pains are of dfeifr-ent
qualitiesv,arying accordingto the organ or
is not an uncommon thing with nervous subjectsto have illusive
perceptionsin which the body seems enormouslyextended; even to
the coveringan acre of ground." '
In this section, on " Space," we have considered :"
1, Relations of Co-existing Bodies,
suggestions.While he was in the hypnoticcondition
I suggestedto him that after awakening,when he will
hear a knock,he will go to the table,take a cigarette,
and lightit. I suggestedto him he should forget
everythingthat passedduringthe hypnosis.
partsof the brain itself,not being suppliedwith nerves of
sense, may be cut out without pain. .
(2) The external conditions are the applicationof
agents adapted to excite the sensor nerves through their
terminal organs and so to send an impressionto the b
Ethical emotions are those which arise in us on account
of our relations to Moral Law. In the presence of a law
known to be justand rightwe have^ in our normal state,
sentiments of Reverence for the law, of Obligationto
obey it,and of Responsibilitfyor no
Madonna, is not one of degree,but one of kind. Imitation is cmeh-anical.
Idealization is intellectual. It is idealization which csotin-tutes
the difference between imitative and creative art, between
sensuous and ideal beauty. The emotions of the beautifu
are examples of very able men with small brains,theirs weighing,
respectivel4y4, and 43 ounces. In savages of the quarternary age,
who fought the mammoth and the cave-bear with rude stone pweoan-s,
the size of the brain-case was above that of the average
to, 16, 19, 50, 71, 77, 144, 173,
175, 176, 219.
Logic, an extension of Pogsy,chol269; language as the isnt-rument
of, 170; the sphere
Lotze, Hermann, quoted or fre-rred
to, 31, 50, 51, 68, 118,
Lowliness, emotion of,258.
did not and could not possiblysuspect the gseugs-ted
letteror figuref,irstbe,cause there were so many
of them in each series;second,because the factors
studied were constantlyvaried ; and, third,because
sham series,such as inverted or coloured letterse,tc
some of the conditions of originalperceptionand thus prer-oduce
an image (page 90). In these cases there is
consciousness of self-directiancgtion for an end.
(2) Inhibition." This is the process of arrestingactions
that tend to occur involuntariliyn one o
no harm or danger accompaniesit. If actual or possible
injuryresults from an incongruity,very different emotions
are produced, excluding those of the Comical, as Fear,
Sorrow, Sympathy, etc. For example, if one slipsand
falls when walking confidentlyalong
" I wanted to see whether
I could resist." That this was actuallythe case we can
see from the fact that,while his legsstarted at the nsaigland
went up to fulfil the order,Mr. F. exclaimed,
" I know what you want me to do,but I will not do
* Zeitschrift ft
Ethical emotions, 268.
Ethics, relation of Psychologyto,
268; sphereof, 126.
Ethnological Psychology, 3.
Euler, German mathematician,
referred to. 111.
Evolution, a formal, not a acal,ustheory,
the progeny results in lunatics and idiots.'" ^
5. The Control of Appetite.
Man is the only animal who has the intelligenctoemake
the pleasureafforded in the gratificatioonf appetitea dtins-ct
objectof pursuit. He does this through his power
OF MAN AND SOCIETY
BORIS SIDIS, M. A., PH.D.
ASSOCIATE IN PSYCHOLOGY AT THE PATHOLOGICAL INSTITUTE
OF THE NEW YORK STATE HOSPITALS
WITH AN INTRODUCTION "V
PROF. WILLIAM JAMES, OF HARVARD UNIVERSITY
NEW YORK AND LONDON
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY
Feelingsexist,therefore,only when their specialcauses
are acting. This renders it difficult to compare and
(2)They are exceedinglyevanescent. " As the causes of
feelingare constantlychanging, the feelingschange. No
* Time,'* we have considered :"
1, Melations of Successive Phenomena,
2, Time, Duration and Eternity Distinguished.
3, Time a Relation, not a Substance or an Attribute.
4, The Objectivity of Time,
5, Heal and Ideal Time.
6, The Relation of Space and Time
or unreal; the effect is the same, if we surrender oseulr-ves
to the illusion. If a real sight would make us
sad, a vivid descriptionev,en though it be fictitiouwsi,ll
have a similar effect. The emotion arises as an iplneicx-able
accompaniment of certain
exudes. The hairs on the skin stand erect and the muscles
tremble. The respiration is quickened,the mouth becomes dry and
the voice fails.
(7) Emotions of Wondep. " Wonder is the emotion dpruco-ed
by the unexpected. Its forms are cfw_a)Supprise,cfw_h)
then it has been translated into thought again. When
matter and force have been explainedto me, I find the
explanationin the hnowledge finallygiven. Abstract the
knowledge, and we spoilthe explanation.Thought,then,
is ultimate. Matter and force are but ph
kinds of, 175; realityof, 174;
relation of in perception,58.
Belief, defined, 12; nature of,
Bell, Sir Charles,referred to or
quoted,224, 243, 253, 257.
Bentham, Jeremy, referred to,
Berkeley, George, Bishop of
impressive.Our dailylife teems with facts that itlraltuesthis
rule : The child is influenced by the last
impressionit receives. In a debate he,as a rule,gains
the victoryin the eyes of the publicwho has the last
word. In a crowd he moves and stirs the cit
an objectthat has the power of givingpleasure.
If these ideas are not reproduced,desires do not arise.
For example, a certain pleasure attends the possession
and use of money. The idea of money is associated with
its abilityto afford pleasure; hence, on t
reason. Their regulationcannot be accomplishedby their
destruction ; for this is next to impossible,and in the case
of the natural desires,would result in a serious mutilation
of the nature ; but they may be made to balance one aont-her,
and so produce an
in being an internal fullness,but has a definite outward
object,while emotion has not. We may best illustrate
these differences by typicalexamples. Grief is an emotion,
consistingin a general disturbance of a painful kind in
the soul,usuallycaused by the
(3) Trust and Suspicion." As a concomitant of the
judgment that a person possesses a true character,there
arises a feelingof confidence in his conduct and purityof
motive. This leads to a goingforth of the soul to repose in
and so it is,the same as 'The Quantity'would
be if there were no positivecontent. But, startingwith
an intuition of Being, we have a positivecontent. Do we
^ negativenotion ^ when we think away all limits,
or do we retain our positiveobject of int