Chapter 1: Review of Modern
Physics
1. Introduction
2. Quantum mechanics
3. Statistical Mechanics and Introduction to
Thermodynamics
4. Basics of Condensed Matter Physics
5. Band Theory of Solids
1.1 Introduction
The purpose of this chapter is to review the
physical concepts, which are needed to
understand the semiconductor fundamentals
of semiconductor devices.
1.2.1 Particle-wave duality
Quantum mechanics acknowledges the fact that
particles exhibit wave properties. Photons on the
other hand can behave as particles with welldefined energy. These observatio
de Broglie wavelength
It is the wave-like behavior of particles,
which led to the de Broglie wavelength:
since particles have wave-like properties,
there is an associated wavelength, called the
de Br
These experiments lead to the particle-wave
duality concept, namely that particles observed in
an appropriate environment behave as waves,
while waves can also behave as particles.
This concept appl
On the other hand, one easily observes electron
emission at ultra-violet wavelengths for which the
number of electrons emitted does vary with the
light intensity.
A more detailed analysis reveals th
1.2.5 Schrdinger's equation
and selected solutions
A classical description of the total energy, E,
which equals the sum of the kinetic energy, K.E.,
and potential energy, V, or:
1.2.12
Convert this
1.2 Quantum Mechanics
1.2.1. Particle-wave duality
1.2.2. The photo-electric effect
1.2.3. Blackbody radiation
1.2.4. The Bohr model
1.2.5. Schrdinger's equation and selected
solutions
1.2.6. Pauli ex
1.2.5.1 Physical interpretation
of the wavefunction
Quantum theory postulates that the wavefunction,
Y(x), multiplied with its complex conjugate,
Y*(x), is proportional to the probability density
fun
Figure 1.2.2 :Maximum kinetic energy, K.E., of electrons emitted
from a metal upon illumination with photon energy, Eph. The energy is
plotted versus the inverse of the wavelength of the light.
The experimental apparatus consists of two metal
electrodes within a vacuum chamber. Light is
incident on one of two electrodes to which an
external voltage is applied. The external voltage is
adjust
(1.2.1)
where h is Planck's constant, n is the frequency of
the light, c is the speed of light in vacuum and l is
the wavelength of the light.
While other light-related phenomena such as the
interfe
Albert Einstein explained this experiment by
postulating that the energy of light is quantized.
He assumed that light consists of individual
particles called photons, so that the kinetic energy
of th
1.2.13
To incorporate the de Broglie wavelength of
the particle we now introduce an operator,
which provides the square of the
momentum, p, when applied to a plane
wave:
1.2.14
Quantum mechanics emerged in the beginning of the
twentieth century as a new discipline because of the
need to describe phenomena, which could not be
explained using Newtonian mechanics or classical
Homework 1
A metal has a workfunction of 4.3 V. What
is the minimum photon energy in Joule to
emit an electron from this metal through the
photo-electric effect? What are the photon
frequency in Tera
1.2.2 The photo-electric effect
The photoelectric effect is by now the "classic"
experiment, which demonstrates the quantized
nature of light:
when applying monochromatic light to a metal in
vacuum
The emission spectrum of an excited hydrogen gas
demonstrates that electrons confined to an atom can
only have discrete energies. Niels Bohr explained the
emission spectrum by assuming that the wavel
Chapter 7 Statistical Mechanics
7-1 Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution Function fMB(E)=Ag(E)e-E/kT
For many identical particles which can be
distinguished in some ways, and a number of
particles in the sa
Accretion, black holes,
AGN and all that.
Andrew King
Theoretical Astrophysics Group, University of Leicester, UK
accretion = release of gravitational energy from infalling matter
accreting object
mat
University of Massachusetts - Amherst
[email protected] Amherst
Doctoral Dissertations 1911-2013
Dissertations and Theses
2-2010
A Comprehensive Study Of The Extensional
Rheology Of Complex Fluids
Ma
University of Rhode Island
[email protected]
Open Access Master's Theses
1998
A STUDY OF THE RHEOLOGICAL
PROPERTIES OF SOME OF THE GELS
COMMONLY USED IN THE
PHARMACEUTICAL, FOOD AND
COSMETIC INDUSTRI