Exercises and discussion
Section 4 Genetics and variation - exercises and discussion
1 The drawing shows the chromosomes in the nucleus of an
epithelial cell of a mammal
(a) What is the diploid number of chromosomes in this species?
(b) What would b
Higher Level Files:
Page Number File Type
Chapter 1 summary
Chapter 2 sum
FAMILY [LEGUMINOSAL OR FABACEA
 SYSTEMATIC POSITION
Calyciflorae Flower Perigynous or Epigynous
Rosales Gynoecium monocarpellary or polycarpellary and
carpels are free. (Apocarpous)
Taxis = orderly arrangement, nomos = law Taxonomy is the body of principles and procedures
This word was produced by A.P. de. Candolle in his book Theories elementaire de la botanique
(Theory of elementary botany
Bacteria reproduce by three methods
(1) Vegetative reproduction
(2) Asexual reproduction
(3) Genetic recombination
This type of reproduction takes place by two methods.
(i) By budding
(a) This type of veg. repro. Was d
HISTORY OF TAXONOMY
1. Moreover, the biologists considerably depend on taxonomic studies of fossils connecting links for drawing
evolutional relationships among the organisms.
2. Theophrastus :.
3. Dioscorides :
(A) He wrote a book Mteria Medica
(B) In th
Differences between Induction and Repression
1. It is switching-on of an operon which is normally
in switched-off state.
2. It starts transcription and translation.
3. It is caused by a new metabolite which needs
enzymes to get metabo
The second important characteristic (first is transmission) of the gene is to store and express the genetic
will contribute towards the phenotype.
DNA carries information for the synthesis of all proteins required for the
All the fungi included in this class are called as lower fungi
The fungal filament (mycelium) of all the fungus included in this class are coenocytic and aseptate.
This type of filament is known a acellular coenocytic.
Arrangement of flower on floral axis is called inflorescence.
Racemose In this type of inflorescence the main axis continues to grow and does not terminate in a
flower and give off flowers laterally in acropetal manner (Where old flowers
Recombinant DNA technology is one of the important tool for the diagnosis of several diseases. The
diagnostic technique involves the construction of probes consisting of short segments of single stranded
DNA attached to a radioactive or fluorescent marker
The term Bryophyta was proposed by Robert Braun
The study of Bryophytes is known as Bryology.
Hedwing is considered to be the father of Bryology. But according to some scientist it is believed
that Cavers is the father of Bryology.
Eye colour in drosophila and self incompatibility genes in plants are also the example of multiple
Gene which cause death of individual in early stage when it comes in homozygous condition called lethal
gene lethal maybe dominant
BRANCHES OF BIOLOGY
1. Palynology - Study of structure of pollengrains.
Father of Palynology is Erdtman.
Father of Indian Palynology - P.K.K. Nair.
2. Palaeobotany - Study of fossil plants. Father of Palaeobotany- Seward
Father of Indian Palaeobotany -
STAINING OF BACTERIA
Gram Staining technique :
1. First of all H.C. Gram differentiated bacteria on the basos of staining.
2. In the first step of this method bacteria are stained with Crystal Violet and then KI solution.
3. After staining, bacteria are w
HISTORY OF TAXONOMY
(1) Aristotle : Father of biology & father of zoology
(2) Theophrastus :
(A) Time - 370 - 285 B.C.
(B) He is known as father of ancient plant taxonomy and father of botany.
(C) Both Theophrastus & Aristotle are Greek political philosop
Economic Importance :
Yeast is also called as fermentation fungi, because different types of products are formed by
fermentation with the help of yeast. Some of them are
Saccharomyces cerevisiae - It is used as fermentation agent in backery (bread indust
A gene library is a collection of many of the desired genes of DNA fragments maintained in clones of bacterial or
some other cells. It is prepared by the following method.
DNA fragments containing one or few desired genes are obtained with the help of spe
Term pteridophyta was proposed by Haeckel
The study of pterdophytes is known as pteriodology.
Pteridophytes are known as reptiles of plant kingdom.
1. Pteridophytes are also called as vascular cryptogames. Pteridophytes are vascular plants i.
KINDGOM - MYCOTA
Father of Mycology
Father of modern mycology
Father of Indian mycology
Fungi name given by
- Study of fungi
- Mitcheli book; Nova platarum genera
- De Bary
- B.B. Mundker / E.J. Butler
- Gaspard Bauhin
EUMYCOTHINA OR TRUE F
Trinomial system :
(1) Proposed by Huxley and Strickland
(2) According to this system name of any plant or species is composed of three names
(i) Generic name
(ii) Specific name
(iii) Subspecific name (name of variety)
When members of any species have la
Biotechnology may be defined as use of micro-organism, animals, or plant cells or their products to
generate different products at industrial scale and services useful to human beings.
A powerful industry based on microbes has be
BOTANICAL GARDENS, HERBARIA AND RESEARCH INSTITUTE
(1) Oldest botanical garden is Padua Botanical Garden Italy (Established - 1545).
(2) Largest Botanical garden in the world is Toyal Botanical Garden, Kew Surrey, England, established by
William Aiton, 17
Using PCR-technique very low content of DNA available from sampels of blood or semen or any
other tissue or hair cell can be amplified many times and analysed. In this technique Taq-Po/ymerase
is used. Taq polymerare enzyme is used in PCR which is a
1. Term Gymnosperm given by Theophrastus.
2. Study of Gymnosperm known as Gymnospermlogy.
3. Gymnosperm & Angiosperm are collectively included under spermatophyta i.e. seed bearing plants.
4. Gymnosperm are naked seeds plant i.e. no fruit form
COHESION OF CARPEL
If only one carpel is present in gynoecium this condition is called monocarpellary.
If more than one carpel is present in gynoecium this condition is called polycarpellary. If all the
carpels in polycarpellary/multicarpellary condition
EDIBLE PARTS OF SOME IMPORTANT FRUITS
Whole fruit (Vegetable)
Mesocarp and endocarp
Aegle marmelos/Wood Apple/Bel
Pulpy endocarp (inner