Chapter 13: Disruption of Healthy Tissue by the Immune Response
Autoimmune diseases are caused by an adaptive immune response that becomes misdirected at healthy
body cells or tissues. A characteristic of autoimmune disease is the presence of antibodies o
Disruption of Healthy Tissue by the Immune Response
Autoimmunity or autoimmune disease - the process of developing an
immune response to self antigens (autoantigens).
Leads to chronic inflammatory damage to tissues.
Chapter 7: The Development of T-lymphocytes
The pathways of development of B-cells and T-cells are similar:
1. Both are derived from the bone marrow stem cells
2. Both must undergo somatic recombination to produce their Receptor
The pathways of developmen
Chapter 6: The Development of B-lymphocytes
Chapter focus is on: The development of B-cells from the bone marrow stem cells antibody-producing
B-cells are generated throughout life from the bone marrow stem cells. B-cells that succeed in bec
Chapter 9: Immunity mediated by B-cells and Antibodies
Activation of a mature nave B-cell
Step 1: cross-linking of B-cell receptors (immunoglobulins) by epitopes on antigens
Step 2: interaction of B-cell co-receptor with the C3d molecule on the surface of
Chapter 8: T-cell mediated Immunity
Focus of this chapter:
1) T-cell activation: steps that occur when a mature nave T-cell encounters its antigen and is
stimulated to differentiate into an effector T-cell (helper, regulatory, and cytotoxic)
2) Effector a
Chapter 10: The bodys defenses against infection
The mucosal surfaces of the body are permeable for communication with the external environment.
This permeability makes them more susceptible than the skin to the invasion by pathogens. Hea
Chapter 15 Transplantation of tissues and organs
Transplantation act of transferring cells, tissues or organs from one site to
The cells, tissues or organs are referred to as grafts.
Grafts are transplanted from a donor to a recipient or host.
Chapter 11: Failures of the Bodys Defenses
Evasion and subversion of the immune system by pathogens
1. Some pathogens change their appearance by existing as antigenically different strains.
Antibodies directed against molecules on the surface of pathogens
IgE-Mediated Immunity and Allergy
Hypersensitivity an inappropriate immune response. Can be
cell-mediated or humoral (antibody-mediated). Body recognizes and
responds to some foreign (environmental) antigen that isnt directly
related to a prote
Chapter 5: Antigen Recognition by T-lymphocytes
Compare and contrast T-cell receptors with the B-cell receptors (Chapter 4 discussed B-cell
receptors in great detail)
1. Both are highly specific for one particular antigen (antigen-specific receptors) beca