Unit 17: John Stuart Mill
Util In Benthams Utilitarian system, a unit of pleasure. The more moral choice is the one
that produces the greatest number of utils.
Fecundity Fertility. The ability to self-produce.
Socialism Economic system in which the means
Unit 7: Plato: The Search for True Knowledge
1. Born in 427 BCE to a noble Athenian family.
2. As a young man, he became a follower of Socrates.
a. Unlike the Pre-Socratics, Socrates focused on eudaimonia which, he believed, came
Aristotle: The Search for Completeness
Born in 384 BCE, in the
northern Greek city of
So unlike Socrates
and Plato he was
not an Athenian
Aristotle was never
really trusted in
B. Like many young men for the ne
A. The first thing you need to know about Christianity is that it differs
from all other religions in its view of its founder.
1. All other religions see their founders as ordinary human
a. Who either received special revelations from God
Unit 9: Epicurus: The Search for Tranquility
A. After Plato and Aristotle a different kind of philosophy developed
1. Didnt focus on explaining the entire universe
2. Focused on ethics helping stressed-out people attain peace of mind.
3. The tw
Unit 3: Religious Ethics
1. If ethics is the knowledge of how to live and what to do, where does this knowledge come
a. For thousands of years, it came from God
b. This is called Religious Ethics.
2. What is Religion?
a. A set of beliefs, social str
Unit 3: Religious Ethics
Religion A set of beliefs, social structures and rituals designed to unit humans to the Divine
Natural Religion A religion based on natural, human reasoning and meditation
Natural Revelation Knowledge about God gained from our obs
Unit 8: Aristotle: The Search for a Complete Life
1. Born in 384 BC, in the northern Greek city of Stagira
a. So unlike Socrates and Plato he was not an Athenian
b. Important Aristotle never really trusted in Athens
2. Like many young men for t
Plotinus The Search for Union with God
A. By the late 2nd century CE Stoicism and Epicureanism
were both exhausted
They had been developed
about as far as they could go
2. Failed to meet some important spiritual needs of the times
Unit 9: Epicurus
Epicureans Followers of Epicurus, a 3rd century BC philosopher who taught that only matter
exists, that there is no life after death, and that human eudaimonia lies in the tranquil enjoyment
of pleasure and avoidance of anxiety.
Unit 5: Consequentialism
1. Consequentialism - the second, and very different, school of Obligation Ethics. Most of
us probably start out as consequentialists.
a. Actions have no moral value in themselves (lying and telling the truth are both
Unit 4: Deontology
Obligation Ethics A school of ethics focused on what actions humans are obligated to do,
rather than what choices will lead to their well-being.
Ethical Hard Universalist Ethical philosopher who believes that moral norms are the same fo
Many of us feel that there are clear obligations we have as human beings, such as to care for our
children, and to not commit murder. Duty theories base morality on specific, foundational
principles of obligation. These theories are sometimes c
1. Since evil is here, "haunting this world by necessary law," and it is the Soul's design to escape from
evil, we must escape hence.
But what is this escape? "In attaining likeness to God," we read. And this is explained as "be
Unit 6: Virtue Ethics
Virtue Ethics Third of the three schools of Philosophic Ethics in the Western tradition.
Focused on the fostering of good character in order to achieve human happiness.
Human Nature The in-born faculties and capacities that make a hu
Unit 6: Virtue Ethics
Obligation Ethics writes a rule book and tells you why you should obey it. Virtue Ethics paints
a picture of the Excellent Human Being and tells you how to achieve it.
1. We have seen the ethics problem for Early Modern philosophers
Unit 13: Thomas Aquinas: The Search for a Christian Wisdom
A. Lived during the High Middle Ages (12th and 13th centuries), when the civilization of
Christian Europe was at its peak.
1. Political organization
a.The Papacy at its high point of po
Unit 7: Plato
Academy Platos school of philosophy. The oldest and most famous school in the ancient
Dialogues Philosophical or literary treatises written in the form of plays, with different
characters arguing for different opinions.
Friedrich Nietzsche The Search for
A. Born in 1844, in rural Germany.
A Preachers Kid his father, uncles and grandfather were all
Attended an excellent, but very strict, boarding school, where he
20Then God spoke all these words:
2 I am the Lord your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of slavery;
you shall have no other gods before* me.
4 You shall not make for yourself an idol, whether in the form of anyth
1When Jesus* saw the crowds, he went up the mountain; and after he sat down, his disciples
came to him. 2Then he began to speak, and taught them, saying:
3 Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.
4 Blessed are those
Surah 6. Cattle
In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.
1. Praise be Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth, and made the darkness and the light.
Yet those who reject Faith hold (others) as equal, with their Guardian-Lord.
2. He it is cr
Obligation Ethics writes a rule book and tells you why you
should obey it. Virtue Ethics paints a picture of the Excellent
Human Being and tells you how to achieve it.
A. We have seen the ethics problem for Early Modern
1. They were committed
Noticed anything strange about all of the philosophers
weve studied so far?
1. Theyve all been men
Philosophy, like most intellectual and cultural fields, has been a male
preserve until very recently
3. But after the 18th
century this slowly
Unit 11: Plotinus
Syncretist Combining the ideas of a number of different religions or philosophies into a single,
The Enneads Groups of Nine. The collected works of Plotinus, as edited by his student
Hierarchy A system in which
Professors Note This has been one of the most important short writings on early Christian
history to be published in the last 50 years. It gives an accurate and lively picture of how the
early Christians saw themselves and their religion especially their
Unit 19: Sartre: The Search for Integrity
A. Sartres life would make a great movie.
1. An intellectual rock star in the mid-20th century everyone read him and pretended to
2. Ugly as sin, but he had many lovers especially the fe
Unit 12: The Rise of Christianity
A. The first thing you need to know about Christianity is that it differs from all other religions in
its view of its founder.
1. All other religions see their founder as a human being
Who either received a special rev
Unit 20: Feminism & Baier: The Search for a Womens Ethics
What Is Feminism?
A. Noticed anything strange about all of the philosophers weve studied so far?
1. Theyve all been men
2. Philosophy, like most intellectual and cultural fields, has been a male pr