Describing Distributions with Numbers
Measures of Center
The Mean x
The mean x of a set of observations is equal to the sum of their values divided by the number of
observations. If the n observations are x1, x2, , xn, their mean is:
x1 + x 2 + + x n
Section Problems #1
Consider a data set that includes every whole number from 1 to 111:
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,.109, 110, 111
What is the five-number summary of this data set?
Consider a data set that includes every whole number from 1 to 112:
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
Normal Quantile Plots
Normal quantile plots are used to determine whether or not data distributions are normal.
Constructing a normal quantile plot
1. Arrange the observed data values from smallest to largest. Record what percentile of the data
linear relationship is strong if points lie close to a straight line
linear relationship is weak if points are widely scattered about a line
problem with scatterplot- our eyes can be fooled about the strength of the relationship
Blackboard Problem Set #1b
Consider a data set that includes every whole number from 1 to 102: 1, 2, 3, 4,102.
What is Q3 in this data set?
Consider a data set that includes every whole number from 5 to 180: 5, 6, 7, 8,180.
What is Q1 in this data s
Blackboard Problem Set #1a
Consider a data set that includes every whole number from 1 to 111: 1, 2, 3, 4,111.
What is Q3 in this data set?
Consider a data set that includes every whole number from 5 to 150: 5, 6, 7, 8,150.
What is Q1 in this data s
Section Problems #3
a) What is the standard deviation of IQ scores? Round your answer to two decimal places.
b) What is the standard deviation of self-concept sco
Blackboard Problem Set #2b
Scores on Test A are distributed N(80,15). What proportion of students receive scores
above 82? (Use a z-score that actually appears in Table A. Round your final answer to
four decimal places.)
Scores on Test B are distrib
Chapter 2.3- Least-Squares Regression (OLS)
A regression line is a straight line that describes how a response variable y changes as an
explanatory variable x changes. We often use a regression line to predict the value of y
for a given value of x. Regres
Chapter 2.4- Cautions about Correlation and Regression
population error= y y
sample residual= y y
A residual plot is a scatterplot of the regression residuals against the explanatory variable.
the mean of the residuals of a least-squares
Blackboard Problem Set #2a
For 2009 college-bound male students, Math SAT scores were distributed N (534, 118).
What proportion of male students received Math SAT scores between 500 and 550?
(Use z-scores that actually appear in Table A. Round your f
2.6 The Question of Causation
What different types of links between x and y can explain an observed association between x and y?
dotted line association between x and y
unbroken line cause-and-effect link between x and y
The observed assoc
probability model- a description of a random phenomenon in the language of mathematics
the description of a random variable has two components:
a list of possible outcomes
a probability for each outcome
The sample space S of a rando
Section Problems #4
When y is regressed on x, the OLS regression line goes through the points (1,2) and (3,6). The
equation of the OLS regression line is y_hat = b0 + b1x. What is b0? What is b1?
The points (1,1), (2,7), and (3,1) are plotted in a s
3.3 Toward Statistical Inference
Statistical inference is using a fact about a sample to estimate the truth about the whole
A simple random sample (SRS) of size n consists of n individuals from the population
chosen in such a way that every se
1st Sino-Japanese War
The First Sino-Japanese War from 1894 to 1895 was fought between the Qing Dynasty
and Meiji Japan, primarily over control of Korea.
The Li-lto Convention of 1885, or the Tientsin Convention was an agreement signed
between Meiji Japan
Civil War: The Birth of the Peoples Republic
Spence, pp. 489-507
Countryside and Town (1949-1950)
New Chinese State policies of agricultural socialization; industry with state enterprise
o Arousing of nations masses to build domestic unite
11. The First Five Year Plan
There are graded class presentations on the questions below. You must prepare
and submit-an outline.
Spence, read pp. 507-523; do a quick review of the previous section on the Korean War, Taiwan and
Tibet, and take a look at t
The First Five Year Plan
Spence, read pp. 507-523
MASS CAMPAIGNS & MOBILIZATION
Raise political awareness and expertise of party recruits
Weed out corrupt people
(2) Domestic Counterrevolution mass campaign triggered by Korean War
Assignment 12: The PLA and the Hundred Flowers Campaign
Spence, pp. 530-543
Military reorganization attempt to develop professional army fit for the modern
Peng Dehuai minister of defense; advocated Soviet Unions model of
Assignment 23: Domestic Threats (Part 2)
Shirk, pp. 55-69
From the type unrest/protest in this chapter, what are emerging? What threats are perceived as the
most dangerous by the government? What strategies are use to quell, avoid, or limit the scope of s
Assignment 21: Domestic Threats, Pt.1.
Shirk, pp. 35-55
Make a list of the causes and lessons that the CCP learned from the Tiananmen "incident".
Avoid public leadership splits
Prevent large-scale social unrest
What were Deng Xiaoping, Zhao Ziyang and L
How has the role of the PLA grown since 1989? Why has this happened? Ali
Before, the PLAs mission was to serve the people by building roads and irrigation,
running state farms, preserving internal order, and preparing for peopl
Assignment 24: China's Economic Miracle
Shirk, Ch. 2, pp.13-34
Red Guard students who made revolution against teachers, school principals, and professionals who were
bourgeois efforts; attacked the government and the CCP officials
Assignment 25: Foreign Direct Investment
China = largest recipient of foreign direct investment in the developing world, 2nd largest recipient in the
o FDI and foreign invested firms
Why was the PRC openness policy so successful
o Single party
Assignment 27: Health Care Systems (Handout)
Is the reformed health system more effective than the Maoist health care program?
MAOIST HEALTH CARE PROGRAM
First National Health Conference of August 1950 laid down the hallmarks
o Free access to health care
Rise of Modern China
CURRENT EVENTS PRESENTATION
1. CNN: IMF warns China on Eurozone Fallout
2. IMF China Economic Outlook
Assignment 26: The Education System
1. Critique the education trends in China during the imperial period (Alyssa) and republican periods (Ali),
and the Maoist period (Kennan).
Imperial Period purpose of education was to transmit knowledge and the written