shift + B =
shift + N =
shift + V =
shift + M =
shift + C =
shift + D =
type letter, then shift + Q =
type letter, then shift + W =
type letter, then shift + E =
type letter, then shift + R =
type letter, then shift + T =
type letter, then shift
Haley is sitting at a table in the cafe
Jackie: Ahlan, Haley!
Haley: Ahlan wsahalan, Jackie!
Jackie: Kayyef Haleckie?
Haley: Ashar jayeddeh! Wa ante?
Jackie: Ashar moomtez!
Haley: Ana ashar jehooayn. Oohred greethera.
Jackie: Ana ahtawshen.
Haley: naam! a
Tanwiin al-fatH and Adverbials of Time
(Ref.: al-Kitaab, pp. 77 78; EMSA, pp. 327 29, 457 58)
1. There are a few adverbs in Arabic: words whose meaning is always adverbial and whose
form never changes.
(/here, there) ( yet, to this point)
2. Most w
Arabic has a dual ending
or which is added to nouns
when referring to two of something. There are also special verb
endings for they and you when the subject is dual.
The two students (masculine) attended the party.
The two students (mascu
The Reductionist Handout on the MaSdar
(Ref.: Al-Kitaab I, p. 228; EMSA I, pp. 308 12, 313 15)
1. The maSdar (source/ )is a noun that manes the action of a verb. is he
studied; is studying or study; is he taught and is (the
act or process of) teaching.
The Reductionist Handout on Cases
1. Cases ( ) affect only nouns and adjectives ( :)
They are the endings that show how a noun or an adjective functions in a sentence.
Variations in verb endings (for the present subjunctive and jussive) are not considere
1. Case markings are variations that occur at the end of a noun or adjective to show the
grammatical function of the word in the sentence. Variable case markings do not occur in verbs
or particles in Arabic.
Note 1: Present-tense verbs do ha