Chapter 07 Civics
What does it mean to be Socially Marginalised:
To be marginalized it t be forced to occupy the sides or fringes and thus not be at the
centre of things.
Sometimes marginalized groups are viewd with
Sound: A kind of sensation received by our ears and perceived by our brain. Sound is
produced by vibrating objects.
Musical Sound: The sound which produce a pleasing effect on the ear.
Noise: The sounds which produce a jarring o
Stars and the Solar System
The phases of the moon occur because we can see only that part of the moon which reflects
the light of the Sun towards us.
Stars are celestial bodies that emit light of their own. Our sun is also a star.
Chapter 06 Civics
Understandign Our Criminal Justice System
There are four people who play a key role in our criminal justice system. They are Police,
Public Prosecutor, the Defence Lawyer and the Judge.
What is the Role of Police in Investing a Crime:
Friction: A force that opposes motion between two objects that are in contact with each
other. Smoother surfaces exhibit less friction, rougher surfaces exhibit more friction.
Friction opposes the relative motion between two
Pollution of Air and Water
Pollution: An undesirable change in the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of air,
water and land that may be harmful to human life and other animals, living conditions,
industrial processes an
Some Natural Phenomena
Some objects can be charged by rubbing with other objects.
There are two kinds of charges positive charge and negative charge
Like charges repel and unlike charges attract each other.
The electrical charges prod
Light: The natural agent that stimulates sight and makes things visible. Light is reflected
from all surfaces.
Regular reflection takes place when light is incident on smooth, polished and regular
Chemical Effects of Electric Current
On passage of electric current through a solution following chemical effects may be seen:
Bubbles of a gas on electrodes
Deposits of metal on electrodes
(iii) Change of colour of solution
Force and Pressure
Force: A push or a pull, that changes or tends to change the state of rest or uniform
motion of an object or changes its direction or shape.
A force arises due to the interaction between two objects.
Force has magni
Synthetic Fibres and Plastics
Synthetic fibres and plastics, like natural fibres, are made of very large units called
polymers. Polymers are made up of many smaller units. Polymers are made up of many
While natural fibre
Crop Production and Management
In order to provide food to our growing population, we need to adopt certain agricultural
Same kind of plants grown and cultivated at a place constitute a crop.
In India, crops can be broadly c
Microorganisms: Friend and Foe
Microorganisms: Microorganisms are too small and are not visible to the unaided eye.
They can live in all kinds of environment, ranging from ice cold climate to hot springs and
deserts to marshy lands.
Coal and Petroleum
Natural Resources: Resources include everything provide by the nature. They form the
wealth of a country.
Types of Natural Resources:
Inexhaustible: There are some resources that are present unlimited in nature a
Reaching the age of Adolescence
Humans become capable of reproduction after puberty sets in. Between the ages of 11
years and 19 years children are called ado- lescents.
The onset of puberty brings about growth of the reproductive org
Cell Structure and Functions
Cell: The smallest structural and functional unit of an organism, which is typically
microscopic and consists of cytoplasm and a nucleus enclosed in a membrane.
All organisms are made of smaller parts calle
Combustion and Flame
Combustion: The process of burning a substance in the presence of air (oxygen) and
undergoes a chemical reaction to produce heat and light.
The substances which burn in air are called combustible.
Oxygen (in air) i
Reproduction in Animals
There are two modes by which animals reproduce. These are: (i) Sexual reproduction, and
(ii) Asexual reproduction
Reproduction resulting from the fusion of male and
female gametes is called sexual
Conservation of Plants and Animals
Biodiversity: Occurrence of innumerable number of different types of organisms and the
whole range of their varieties (biotypes) adapted to different climates, environments and
Materials: Metals and Non-Metals
Metals are lustrous whereas non-metals have no lustre.
Generally, metals are malleable and ductile. Non-metals do not have these properties.
Generally, metals are good conductors of heat and electricity