Members of a molecular family share common features. Family resemblances are most easily detected by comparing 3D structures.
Ribonuclease from cow and human are similar. This similarity is inferred by the similarity of function, an
Recombinant DNA technology:
Manipulation of DNA
Restriction enzymes to cut DNA. DNA ligases to join DNA fragments.
Base pairing language, allowing complementary sequences to recognize and bind one another.
Hybridization with complemen
Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA. Used as carriers of genetic information.
Macromolecules consist of large number of linked nucleotides, each composed of a sugar, a phosphate, and a base.
Genetic information is stored in the sequence of bases
The proteome is the functional representation of the genome.
Proteome: proteins expressed by the genome. Represents functional expression of information, which varies with cell type, developmental stage, and environmental conditions.
What are proteins?
Proteins are responsible for many biological processes including catalysis (enzyme), communication (receptors, ion channels), and recognition (antibodies) Proteins are linear polymers built of chiral monomer units called L-amino acids
Lipids and Cell Membranes
Structurally dynamic. Prevents molecules from passing across Contain transport systems (proteins) to enable selective permeability External cell membrane: plasma membrane Internal membrane in eukaryotic ce
What are carbohydrates?
energy stores, fuels, and metabolic intermediates ribose/deoxyribose sugar part of RNA/DNA structural elements in cell walls of bacteria and plants frequently linked to proteins and lipids to mediate cellul
Protein Activity Regulation
Allosteric proteins contain distinct regulatory (allosteric) and functional sites. Binding of regulatory molecules (usually small) at the allosteric sites trigger conformational changes that are transmitted
Basic Enzyme Catalytic Strategies
Binding Energy: free energy released upon binding. For substrate binding to enzyme, the formation of a large number of weak interactions contribute to the binding energy.
Establishes substrate specificity Increases cata
(March 21,2010)Enzymes: protein catalysts of biological systems
Chemical transformations, interconversion of energy forms. High catalytic power and specificity. Active site: a particular site on the enzyme at which catalysis takes place.