Urbanization is the process by which there is an increase in the proportion of
people living in urban areas.
Some common indices used to define towns are
Level of administration
The UN has r
The Actions of Waves
Coast: The strip of land where it meets the sea
Coastline: The margin of land. The limit to which wave action takes place.
Shore: The strip of land lying between the high and low water levels.
Shoreline: The limit of the s
Actions of Rivers
River erosion involves 4 processes:
Abrasion/Corrasion: The wearing away of the sides and the bed of a
river by the impact of the load.
Hydraulic Action: Erosion by the force of moving water.
Atrrition: The breakin
The Plate Tectonic Theory
The earth's crust is divided into separate parts called tectonic plates.
These plates float on the partially molten rocks of the upper mantle.
The plates move due to convection cells in the mantle.
Margins are the areas between t
Population Geography is the study of spatial variations in distribution, density,
composition and growth of human numbers on earth.
It is important because it links all other aspects of geography together.
Demography is the
The Work of Ice
Every 200-250 million years, climatic activity leads to falls in temperature of
over 5 degrees centigrade. These periods of great ice activity are known as Ice
The most recent is the Pleistocene period of the Quaternary era, which be
This is the distribution of different functions in a city
The Bid-rent Theory
The Bid Rent Theory suggests different functions will bid differently for land in
various parts of the city.
It suggests the more accessible the site of land, t
Zipf's Inverse Distance Law
The volume of migrants decreases with distance from the origin.
Stouffer's Law of Intervening Distances
The number of migrants moving from one town (i) to another (j) is directly related to the
opportunities available at j but
Types of Volcanoes
Active: This is a volcano that has erupted within the last 500 years and still
shows signs of activity.
Dormant: This is a volcano that has not erupted within the last 500 years but
still shows signs of activity such as hot spring
Spearman's Rank Correlation is a technique used to test the direction and strength of
the relationship between two variables. In other words, its a device to show whether any
one set of numbers has an effect on another set of numbers