1. (a) Let E = 1240 eVnm/min = 0.6 eV to get = 2.1 103 nm = 2.1 m. (b) It is in the infrared region.
2. The energy of a photon is given by E = hf, where h is the Planck constant and f is the frequency. The wavelength is related to the frequency b
Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics: Thermal Physics
Thermal physics: Study of the properties of matter as affected by
changes in macroscopic state variables ( temperature, entropy S
temperature
S,
volume, pressure, magnetization, magnetic field, area,
Chapter 18
Temperature, Heat, and the
First Law of Thermodynamics
18.2 Temperature
Temperature has no upper bound
In some sense it is useful to think of
temperature as a fieldor an energy ( k BT )
which 'drives' physical phenomena
drives
phenomena.
[k B i
Chapter 19
The Kinetic Theory of Gases
Kinetic theory: an atomic approach to describe macroscopic
properties of gases (Clausius, Maxwell, Boltzmann did
pioneering work).
A key development in this area was the proposal of Maxwell (1859)
that a particle of
1. The number of atoms per unit volume is given by n = d / M , where d is the mass density of copper and M is the mass of a single copper atom. Since each atom contributes one conduction electron, n is also the number of conduction electrons per unit
1. (a) For a given value of the principal quantum number n, the orbital quantum number ranges from 0 to n 1. For n = 3, there are three possible values: 0, 1, and 2. (b) For a given value of , the magnetic quantum number m ranges from - to + . For =
1. According to Eq. 39-4 En L 2. As a consequence, the new energy level E'n satisfies
En L = En L
FG IJ = FG L IJ H K H L K
-2
2
=
1 , 2
which gives L = 2 L. Thus, the ratio is L / L = 2 = 1.41.
2. (a) The ground-state energy is
( 6.63 10
Chapter 20
Entropy and the Second Law of
Thermodynamics
Quasistatic process
In order to describe a thermodynamic system in terms
of its equilibrium thermodynamic coordinates one considers
processes which take the system from one equilibrium state
to anoth